Locally Processed Street-Vended Foods in Nigeria: How Safe?

Locally Processed Street-Vended Foods in Nigeria: How Safe?

S.B. Fasoyiro 

Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan, Nigeria

| |
| | Citation



Potential sources of food hazards for locally processed and street-vended foods were assessed. Special focus is on common street beverages such as soymilk, kunu, pito, zobo; soy cheese (wara), akara, meat products such as suya, kundi, fried chicken, and cassava products; gari fufu and lafun. A review of microbial hazards in these products was based on previous reports. Physical hazards in the products ranged from sand, insect parts, and faeces. Chemical hazards include detergent, ink from paper pack-ages, and oxidised fatty products from frying oils while microbial hazards include the pathogenic and aflatoxin producing microorganisms. The possible sources of contamination identified include pro-cesses such as washing, grinding, packaging, and storage while others include source of water, raw materials and ingredients, cooking utensils, equipment, and handlers. The importance of developing hazard analysis critical control points for these products was emphasised and the need for tailoring training programmes towards a specific food product for local processors and street vendors was also recommended. The need for control of food waste is also discussed to ensure environmental safety.


Food waste, HACCP, local processing, street foods, training programmes


[1] Akunyili, D.N. Food Handling, preservation, packaging and the environment: The role of the professional in sustainable activity. Paper presented at 31st Annual Conference of Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology, 24th October, 2007.

[2] CFISIG. Canadian Food Inspection System Implementation Group. Food retail and Food Services Code Frame No.6., 1999.

[3] CDC. Food borne botulism from home-prepared fermented tofu in California. Morbid-ity and Mortality Weekly Report, 56(5), pp. 96–97, 2007.

[4] Fasoyiro, S.B., Obatolu, V.A., Ashaye, O.A., Adegoke., G.O. & Cutter, C.N.C. A Food Safety Guide: From Farm to Table. What a Food Handler should Know, Bora Agro Nigerian limited: Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 37, 2009.

[5] Ehiri, J.E. & Prowse, J.M. Child health promotion in developing countries; The case for integration of environmental and social interventions? Health Policy and Planning, 4(1), pp. 1–10, 1999. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/14.1.1

[6] Kassam, A. & Barat, S. A status on food safety. TAC/SCOPAS, CGIAR. pp. 1–9, 2004.

[7] Food and Drugs Administration. Monitoring exposure to natural chemicals. Interna-tional Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 27, pp. 414–420, 2002.

[8] Omotayo, R.K. & Denloye, S.A. The Nigerian experience on food safety regulations. FAO/WHO global Forum of Food safety Regulators. Marrakesh, Morocco, 28–20 January, pp. 1–6, 2002.

[9] Fasoyiro, S.B. Assessment of hazards in local soy-cheese processing; implications on health and environment in Oyo State, Nigeria. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 152, pp. 37–44, 2011. available at www.witpress.com, ISSN 1743-3541 (on-line), doi: 10.2495/FENV110041. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/FENV110041

[10] Fasoyiro, S.B., Obatolu, V.A., Ashaye, O.A., Adegoke G.O. & Farinde E.O. Microbial hazards in locally processed soy-cheese in Nigeria. Nutrition and Food Science, 40(6), pp. 591–597, 2010. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00346651011090392

[11] Lateef, A., Davies, T.E., Adelekan, A., Adelere, I.A., Adedeji, A.A. & Fadahunsi, A.I. Akara Ogbomoso: microbiological examination and identification of hazards and critical control points. Food Science and Research International, 16(5), pp. 389–400, 2010. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1082013210366894

[12] Adebayo, G.B., Otunola, G.A. & Ajao, C.A. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of kunu prepared from millet, maize and guinea corn stored at selected temperatures. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2(1), pp. 41–46, 2010.

[13] Nwachukwu, N.C., Orji, F.A. & Amaika, J.I. Isolation and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from kunu, a locally processed beverage marketed at different market in Abia state of Nigeria. Australia Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(4), pp. 4432–4436, 2009.

[14] Kolawole, O.M., Kayode, R.M.O. & Akindiyo, B. Proximate and microbial analyses of burukutu and pito produced in Ilorin, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(5), pp. 587–590, 2007.

[15] Amusa, N.A., Ashaye, O.A., Aiyegbayo, A.A., & Oladapo, M.O. Microbiological and nutritional quality of hawked zobo drinks wildly consumed in Nigeria. Journal of food Agriculture and Environment, 3, pp. 47–50, 2005.

[16] Edema, M.O., Osho, O.T. & Diala, C.I. Evaluation of microbiological hazards associ-ated with processing of suya (a grilled meat product). Scientific Research and Essay, 3(12), pp. 621–626, 2008.

[17] Oladimeji, J.O., Olujide, M.G. & Oyesola, O.B. Income generating activities of Fulani Women in Iseyin local Government Area of Oyo State. Study of Tribes and Tribals, 4(2), pp. 117–121, 2006.

[18] Rienke, N. & Nieuwenhuis, J. Soya and other leguminous crops. Agro-dok series 10, CTA, Wageningen, pp. 50, 2002.

[19] Fennema, O.R. Food Chemistry, 3rd ed., CRC Press: USA, pp. 299–308, 1996.

[20] Fouad, K.E. & Hageman, G.D. Microbial spoilage of tofu (soycurd). Journal of Food Protection, 56(2), pp. 157–163, 2011.

[21] Rombouts, F.M. & Nout, R. Food Microbiology and hygiene. Encyclopedia of Human Biology, 3, pp. 661–670, 1996.

[22] Jos, H.J. & Vield, H. Microbial and biochemical spoilage of foods: an overview. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 33, pp. 1–18, 1996. doi: http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/0168-1605(96)01139-7

[23] Adebayo, A. & Idowu, C. Mycotoxins in food in West Africa. Journal of Biotechnology, 2(2), pp. 12–16, 2003.

[24] Osuntogun, B. & Aboaba, O.O. Microbiological and physicochemical evaluation of some non-alcoholic beverages. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 3(3), pp. 188–192, 2004. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2004.188.192

[25] Upadhyaya, H.D., Nigam, S.N., Mchan, V.K. & Yellaiah, N. Registration of Aspergillus flavus seed infection resistant peanut germplasm. Crop Science, 41, pp. 559–600, 2001. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2001.412599x

[26] Manual on the application of the HACCP system in mycotoxin prevention and control. FAO, 2001.

[27] Li, B., Parker, T. & Dalton, L. The microbiological and safety quantity of food. Toxi-genic Fungi and Food from Field, 6th edn., LAP Publishers: China. pp. 472–494.

[28] Melean, M., Goldbatt, L. & Kpodo, D. Cellular metabolism of aflatoxin. Dangers of Delayed Drying of Foodstuffs, 3rd edn., IDE Publisher: Benin City, Nigeria. pp. 711, 2007.

[29] Omafuvbe, B.O., Adigun, A.R., Ogunsiji, J.L. & Asunmo A.M. Microbial diversity in ready-to-eat fufu, lafun fermented cassava products sold in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Research Journal of Microbiology, 2(1), pp. 831–837, 2007. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ jm.2007.831.837

[30] Adegunloye, D.V., Agarry, O.O., Adebolu, T.T. & Adetuyi, F.C. Effect of leaf-packaging on the microbiological assessment of some food items. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(5), pp. 445–447, 2006.

[31] Potter N.N. & Hotchkiss, J.H. Food Science, 5th edn., Springer: USA, pp. 325–367, 1998. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4985-7

[32] Adegoke, G.O., Egunjobi, L., Agbola, T. & Olatubara, C.O. Application of Hazard Analysis Critical control Points (HACCP) for street-vended foods. International Training Workshop on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. Chal-lenges for the New Millennium. 27–28th September, University of Ibadan, 2000.

[33] Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and guidelines for its application. Annex to CAC/RCP 1-1969, Review 3, 1997.

[34] WHO. Essential Safety requirements for Street-vended Foods. 2001.

[35] Boer, A. & Beumer, R. Methodology for detection and typing of food-borne micro-organisms. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50, pp. 119–130, 1999. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(99)00081-1

[36] Sridhar, M.K.C. Environment, Food and Health: Inseparable Interactions. International Training Workshop on Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. Challenges for the New Millennium. 27–28th September, University of Ibadan, 2000.

[37] Cutter, N.C. Opportunities for the bio-based packaging technologies to improve the quality and safety of fresh and further processed muscle food. Meat Science, 74, pp. 131–14, 2006. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.023