Emerging Issues in the Management of Floods in Ghana

Emerging Issues in the Management of Floods in Ghana

D.K. Ahadzie D.G. Proverbs 

Centre for Settlements Studies, College of Architecture and Planning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana

School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, UK.

Page: 
182-192
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.2495/SAFE-V1-N2-182-192
Received: 
N/A
|
Accepted: 
N/A
|
Published: 
30 June 2011
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

Evidence of flooding in Ghana (then the Gold Coast) appears to date as far back as the year 1936. Since then flooding has become a recurring phenomenon causing the flooding of major Ghanaian cities and conurbations on an unprecedented scale. A review of the extant literature on flooding in developing countries reveals a dearth of research in the context of Africa and Ghana in particular. Using content analysis, the organizational and structural themes emerging from Ghanaian Newspapers with respect to the management of flooding in the last 10 years are identified, analyzed and reported. The findings reveal that the Ghanaian flood risk management strategy is currently in need of further development. It is contended that, with an increasing population and growth in human settlements, the worst effects of flooding might be ahead. This requires detailed analysis and policy direction towards developing and promoting a holistic risk management plan for flood recovery and response. This risk management plan should embody a robust and well-packaged educational programme towards raising awareness and understanding of safety measures one should adopt in the event of a flood.

Keywords: 

flood response, Ghana, risk management, safety awareness, well-packaged education, West Africa

  References

[1] Ahadzie, D.K. & Proverbs, D.G., Flooding and post flooding response strategies in Ghana. 2nd International Conference on Flood Recovery, Innovation and Response (FRIAR, 2010), 27–28th May, Milano, Italy, 10 pp., 2010.

[2] Ablekpe, B., Any solution for Accra floods. The Daily Graphic, 24 April, p. 29, 2009.

[3] Jafaru, M.Y., Accra experiences severe floods. The Daily Graphic, 14 April, p. 29, 2008.  [4] Aduamah, Y., Construction after the floods. The Daily Graphic, 17 December, p. 9, 2007.

[5] Asare, E., Flooding, a matter of concern in Kumasi. The Daily Graphic, 19 April, p. 29, 2005.

[6] The Pioneer, Floods render about 1000 homeless, 8 October 2004.

[7] The Ghanaian Times, More floods, June, p. 1, 2002.

[8] Essel, G.K., Of floods and other matters. The Daily Graphic, 19 July, p. 7, 2001.

[9] Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre and United Nations Development Programme, Integrated flood risk management in Asia, Bangkok, 2005. www.adpc.net/maininforesource/udrm/floodprimer.pdf

[10] Sheets, B. & Williams, J., Hurricane Watch; Forecasting the Deadliest Storms on Earth, Vintage Books at Random House: New York, 2001.

[11] Gama, L., Ordenez, E.M., Vallanava, C., Arturo Ortiz-Perez, M., Lopez, H.D., Torses, R. & Valedez, E.M., Floods in Tobasco Mexico: History and Perspectives, 2010.

[12] de Bruijn, K.M., et al., Casualities in the discussion on new flood protection standards in the Netherlands, 2010.

[13] Lamond, J. & Proverbs, D.G., The barriers to resilient reinstatement of flood damaged homes. 4th International i-Rec Conference 2008, Building Resilience: Achieving PostDisaster Reconstruction, Wednesday 30 April–Friday 2 May 2008, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2008.

[14] Konadu, D.D. & Fosu, C., Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Protection in the Developing World, vol. VI, pp. 325–332, 2009. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-9139-1_31

[15] Fadairo, G. & Ganiyu, S., Effects of flooding on the built environment in Akure, Nigeria. West African Built Environment Research Conference, Accra, Ghana, pp. 281–287, 2010.

[16] UNECE, Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundry Watercourses and International Lakes Transboundry Flood Risk Management: Experiences from the UNECE Region, 2009.

[17] OCHA, West Africa – Flood Affected Population, June to September 2009, 2009. http: //www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/HHOO-7WEPSW? (accessed 14.10.2009).

[18] United Nations Educational, Social and Cultural Organization, International Flood Initiative, 2007.

[19] Kwarteng, E.M., Aftermath of floods. Feature Article in Daily Graphic, 23 June, p. 18, 2007.

[20] Daily Graphic, Floods damage Kotokuraba Market, 12 April, p. 32, 2000.

[21] Daily Graphic, Flood again, 7th June, p. 1, 2002.

[22] Ghanaian Times, Saltpond gets worst floods in 20 Years, 9 June, p. 6, 2005.

[23] Daily Graphic, Flood again – it’s the worst in Accra, 2 June, p. 1, 2001.

[24] United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNCHA), Situation Report on Floods in Ghana, www.Ghanaweb.com (Accessed 12.16.2009), 2007.

[25] Ghana News Agency, Don’t give up farming because of flooding, 2007, www.Ghanaweb.

com (accessed 12/16/2009).

[26] Ghanaian Times, Nadmo prepares for floods, September, p. 3, 2005.

[27] Ghanaian Times, November 15, 2007.

[28] Daily Graphic, Flood Alert: Bagre Dams, 25 August, p. 1, 2008.

[29] Daily Graphic, Floods hit West Africa ..., 7th September, 2009.

[30] Ghanaian Times, 26 LIVES PERISH ... in floods, 22 June, p. 1, 2010.

[31] Daily Graphic, Nations worth flood disaster – Death toll now 35, 22 June, p. 1, 2010.

[32] Daily Graphic, $8m needed for resettlement in Accra, 16 August, p. 14, 2001.

[33] Zaney, G.D., The recent floods in Accra and responses by our engineers, Daily Graphic, 29th September, p. 9, 2007.

[34] Xah, Yearly ritual of floods and deaths, Spectactor, 12th January, p. 12, 2001.

[35] Daily Graphic, Is Accra ready for floods, 23rd February, p. 28, 2005.

[36] Strahler, A.H. & Strahler, A.N., Physical Geography: Science and Systems of the Human Environment, John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1992.

[37] Leedy, P.D. & Ormrod, J.E., Practical Research, Planning and Design, International Edition, 2005.

[38] Braun, V. & Clarke, V., Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 3, pp. 77–101, 2006. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

[39] Patton, M.Q., Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 2nd edn, Sage: Newbury Park, CA, 1990.

[40] Vice-chancellor reports, 42nd Congregation Report, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 2008.