An investigation has been conducted to analyse the performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic system (GCPV) based on the net energy metering (NEM) scheme. Several analyses of a similar system have been performed in the literature based on assumptions and simulations. However, the concept based on actual NEM data in Malaysia has not been fully considered. Hence, this study analyses the real performance of the GCPV system from the field monitoring of PV energy production, as well as import and export energy, collected at a residential house participating in NEM 2.0. From the collected data, the economic parameters were calculated and compared with an equivalent system before the NEM implementation, which is a grid-only system, and the NEM 1.0 and 3.0 schemes. The results show that for the considered load demand with an average monthly electricity bill of RM 500, the NEM 2.0 provides more benefits to consumers with the lowest payback period, net present cost, net saving and energy cost. Although NEM 3.0 produced the lowest net saving, which was RM 33,280 for 20 years of the project’s lifetime, it was still capable of reducing the electricity bill by 66% for the first year and 32% during self-consumption.
economic analysis, grid-connected PV system, Kuala Terengganu, net energy metering
 Blank, L. & Gegax, D., Do residential net metering customers pay their fair share of electricity costs? Evidence from New Mexico utilities. Utilities Policy, 61, p. 100973, September, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jup.2019.100973
 Razali, A.H., Abdullah, M.P., Hassan, M.Y., Said, D.M. & Hussin, F., Integration of time of use (TOU) tariff in net energy metering (NEM) scheme for electricity custom- ers. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering & Informatics, 7(2), pp. 255–262, 2019. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijeei.v7i2.1173
 Razali, A.H., Abdullah, M.P., Mat Said, D. & Hassan, M.Y., Annualized electricity cost of residential solar PV system under Malaysia’s NEM scheme. Elektrika - Journal of Electrical Engineering, 19(1), pp. 50–54, 2020. https://doi.org/10.11113/elektrika. v19n1.204
 Desa, M.K.B.M., Masri, S. & Ganesan, L., An economic analysis for grid connected residential photovoltaic system in Malaysia. Int. Conf. on High Voltage Engineer- ing & Power Systems ICHVEPS 2017 - Proceeding, pp. 145–148, 2017. https://doi. org/10.1109/ICHVEPS.2017.8225931
 Mansur, T.M.N.T., Baharudin, N.H. & Ali, R., Technical and economic analysis of net energy metering for residential house. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, 11(2), pp. 585–592, 2018. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijeecs.v11. i2.pp585-592
 “SEDA PORTAL.” https://www3.seda.gov.my/. Accessed 03 March 2021.
 Razali, A.H., Abdullah, M.P., Hassan, M.Y. & Hussin, F., Comparison of new and previ- ous net energy metering (NEM) scheme in Malaysia. Elektrika - Journal of Electrical Engineering, 18(1), pp. 36–42, 2019. https://doi.org/10.11113/elektrika.v18n1.141
 “Net Energy Metering (NEM) - FAQ - NEM Solar Malaysia.” http://nemsolarmalaysia. com/nem-faq-solar-malaysia/. Accessed 03 March, 2021.
 Allouhi, A., Saadani, R., Kousksou, T., Saidur, R., Jamil, A. & Rahmoune, M., Grid- connected PV systems installed on institutional buildings: Technology comparison, energy analysis and economic performance. Energy & Buildings, 130, pp. 188–201, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.08.054
 Li, H.X., Zhang, Y., Li, Y., Huang, J., Costin, G. & Zhang, P., Exploring payback-year based feed-in tariff mechanisms in Australia. Energy Policy, 150, 112133, 2021. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112133
 Bhattacharjee, S. & Dey, A., Techno-economic performance evaluation of grid inte- grated PV-biomass hybrid power generation for rice mill. Sustainable Energy Technolo- gies & Assessments, 7, pp. 6–16, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seta.2014.02.005
 Islam, M.S., A techno-economic feasibility analysis of hybrid renewable energy supply options for a grid-connected large office building in southeastern part of France. Sustain- able Cities & Society, 38, pp. 492–508, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.01.022
 Taghavifar, H. & Zomorodian, Z.S., Techno-economic viability of on grid micro-hybrid PV/wind/Gen system for an educational building in Iran. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 143, p. 110877, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2021.110877
 Garriga, S.M., Dabbagh, M. & Krarti, M., Optimal carbon-neutral retrofit of residen- tial communities in Barcelona, Spain. Energy & Buildings, 208, 2020. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.109651
 Maammeur, H., Hamidat, A., Loukarfi, L., Missoum, M., Abdeladim, K. & Nacer, T., Performance investigation of grid-connected PV systems for family farms: Case study of North-West of Algeria. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 78, pp. 1208– 1220, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.05.004
 Mukisa, N., Zamora, R. & Tjing Lie, T., Store-on grid scheme model for grid-tied solar photovoltaic systems for industrial sector application: Costs analysis. Sustainable Energy Technologies & Assessments, 41, p. 100797, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. seta.2020.100797
 S. E. D. A. M. SEDA, “Annual Report 2013,” 2013.
 S. E. D. A. M. SEDA, “SEDA Annual Report 2017,” 2017. [Online]. Available: http:// www.seda.gov.my/download/seda-annual-report/
 “Pricing & Tariffs - Tenaga Nasional Berhad.” https://www.tnb.com.my/residential/ pricing-tariffs/ (accessed 08 August, 2021).
 S. E. D. A. M. SEDA, “SEDA Annual Report 2018,” 2018. [Online]. Available: http:// www.seda.gov.my/download/seda-annual-report/