Heavy-duty trucks and new engine technology: impact on fuel consumption, emissions and trip cost

Heavy-duty trucks and new engine technology: impact on fuel consumption, emissions and trip cost


RISSK & Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

| |
| | Citation



Road transport offers important logistic benefits at a reasonable cost for producers and consumers, hence its large market share. But, its use of diesel or gas generates large volumes of Co2, nox  and pm10  (among others). Higher emission standards and demand for greener transport call for alternatives. literature analysis, a simulated Dutch-german road trip and a partial financial analysis are used to compare different engine-fuel combinations. Electricity from green sources removes these emissions. To stimulate full electric trucks (FET) several issues need to be addressed. First is creation of a large charging network. The netherlands is much further with this than germany. Affordability is another one. operating and investment costs should at least equal those of non-FET to have comparable total cost of ownership (TCo) over the lifetime of a truck. with FET, investment costs are now much higher, which should be compensated by lower operating costs. The actual operating costs depend on many factors, but fuel costs and trip time are likely to rise if en-route recharging is needed. A more in-depth financial analysis is needed for more exact conclusions. Another issue is technical. practice tests are needed to enhance the results of the simulation study. Hybrid diesel-electric and FET are already used in urban and regional transport. Regulation should also become tighter. Zero emission should become the norm. if these issues are successfully death with, then electric drive will become the mainstream technology. Technically, 2025 or 2030 seem feasible for large-scale production, which also lowers investment costs. with more electricity needed for transport, the supply of green electricity should grow strongly. Finally, the micro simulation is a modest example of the potential of the simulation model. modeling of other corridors is underway, using one truck or a fleet of FET.


barriers, electric, emissions, energy, heavy-duty trucks, policy, trip costs


[1] oECD, Decoupling the Environmental impacts of Transport, www.oecd.org/green- growth/greening-transport/37722729.pdf (accessed on 15 november, 2017).

[2] European Environment Agency, Freight transport activity growth for EU 25, www. eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/figures/freight-transport-activity-growth-for-eu-25, Copenhagen, 2010 (accessed on 30 november, 2017).

[3] Eurostat, Energy, transport and environment indicators, 2016 edition, luxembourg, 2016.

[4] in 2015, 3.4 bln. ton-kms were transported in EU-28, 50% went by road, 12% by rail, 4% by barge, 0,1% by air and 32.6% by sea. Figures vary per country and commod- ity type, Eurostat, Freight Transport Statistics – modal split, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ statistics-explained/index.php/Freight_transport_statistics_-_modal_ split (accessed on 23 november, 2017).

[5] Transporting export beer between Heineken’s brewery in Zoeterwoude and the port of Rotterdam by barge saves 7.3 mln. truck kms (85%) yearly. The engines of the barges (partially) use biofuel, www.ttm.nl/nieuws/heineken-shift-bier-van-truck-naar-binnen- vaart/9006/ (accessed on 10 november, 2017).

[6] iiASA, Energy End-Use: Transport, www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/Flagship- projects/global-Energy-Assessment/gEA_Chapter9.pdf (accessed on 11 november, 2017).

[7] Kojima, K. & Ryan, l., Transport Energy Efficiency, iEA, paris, 2010.

[8] Enerdata, Final energy consumption by sector in EU, http://www.odyssee-mure.eu/ publications/efficiency-by-sector/overview/final-energy-consumption-by-sector.htm, 2018 (accessed on 2 november, 2017).

[9] ophardt, C., global warming, Carbon Dioxide and Fossil Fuels, Virtual Chembook, http://chemistry.elmhurst.edu/vchembook/globalwarmA4.html, 2003 (accessed on 2 november, 2017).

[10] Un, The paris Agreement, unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9485.php (accessed on 4 november, 2017).

[11] oECD, green Strategy Synthesis Report: Towards green growth, www.oecd.org, may 2011 (accessed on 26 november, 2017).

[12] Bal, F. & Vleugel, J., “The impact of hybrid engines on fuel consumption and emis- sions of heavy-duty trucks” WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 224, pp. 203–212, wiT press: Southampton and Boston, 2017.

[13] This is not a traffic modeling study, but a policy analysis. mitton, l., Sutherland, H. & weeks, w., Microsimulation Modelling for Policy Analysis, Challenges and innova- tions, Cambridge University press, 2000.

[14] Resp. 18,5 % (national) resp. 21,3% (international). Tln, Transport in cijfers 2016, Zoetermeer.

[15] Dieselnet, EU: Heavy-duty truck and bus engines, www.dieselnet.com/standards/eu/ hd.php (accessed on 20 october, 2017).

[16] noS.nl, Vuile buitenlandse trucks vaak niet beboet in milieuzones, 23-03-2018.

[17] Dijkhuizen, B., Tno: Euro 6 trucks sneller schoon dan nieuwe dieselauto’s, Vakmedianet, 8 June 2015. iCCT, A technical summary of Euro 6/Vi vehicle emission standards, www.theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/iCCT Euro6/Vi_briefing jun2016.pdf (accessed on 30 october, 2017).

[18] Sturgess, S., maintenance: Diesel particulate filters, HDT Heavy Duty Trucking, http:// www.truckinginfo.com/channel/maintenance/article/story/2009/05/diesel-particulate- filters.aspx, may 2009 (accessed on 3 october, 2017).

[19] ing Bank, Trucks en trailers, Truck- en trailermarkt in teken van optimalisatie, www.ing.nl/media/20150317%20ing%20Assetvie%20Truck-%20en%20trailer- markt %20in%20teken%20van%20optimalisatie_tcm162-81579 .pdf (accessed on 3 november, 2017).

[20] The successful lean & green program is an example in The netherlands and Belgium, www.globalreporting.org/network/report-or-explain/campaign-forum-members/pages/ Connekt---lean-and-green.aspx (accessed on 4 november, 2017).

[21] EpA, Average in-use emissions from heavy-duty trucks, EpA-F-08-027, october 2008. [22] odhams, A.m.C., Roebuck, R.l., Hunt, S.w. & Cebon, D., Factors influencing the energy consumption of road freight transportation. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science,  224(9), 2004. https://doi.org/10.1243/09544062jmes2004

[23] Vil, meten is weten – het berekenen van C2-emissies, http://vil.be/2013/ meten-is- weten/#, 2013 (accessed on 5 november, 2017).

[24] Bosman, p., Het gemiddeld gebruik van een vrachtauto, google+, http://gemiddelden. nl/verbruik/gemiddeld-verbruik-van-een-vrachtauto, 2017 (accessed on 8  november, 2017).

[25] United Consumers, Actuele brandstofprijzen, dagelijkse update, www.unitedconsum- ers.com/tanken/ (accessed on 14 April, 2018).

[26] van Raemdonck, K. & macharis, C., Time valuation in traffic. Congestions costs, value of time & lost vehicle hours, RA-mow-2011-001, VUB Brussel, 2010.

[27] Eurostat, greenhouse gas emission statistics, ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/ index.php/greenhouse_gas_emission_statistics, 2017 (accessed on 2 november, 2017).

[28] Consultancy.nl, inzet van overheid cruciaal bij energietransitie transportsector, 27 november, 2017 (accessed on 28 november, 2017). See also navigant Research, global Annual Sales of Electric Trucks are Expected to Reach 332,000 by 2026, www. navigantresearch.com/newsroom/global-annual-sales-of-electric-trucks-are-expected- to-reach-332000-by-2026 (accessed on 29 november, 2017).

[29] logistiek.nl, Tln: in 2025 alle stadsdistributie elektrisch, www.logistiek.nl/distribu- tie/nieuws/2017/09/tln-2025-alle-stadsdistributie-elektrisch-101157961?vakmedianet- approve-cookies=1 (accessed on 30 november, 2017).

[30] Tln, Transport in cijfers 2016, Zoetermeer.