Hybrid Techniques to Enhance Solar Thermal: The Way Forward

Hybrid Techniques to Enhance Solar Thermal: The Way Forward

Hussain H. Al-Kayiem 

Mechanical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia

| |
| | Citation



Solar is one of the pillars for clean and environment friendly energy. The drawback of the solar is the interruption during the night and cloudy and rainy weather. This paper presents the author’s experience on enhancing the solar thermal systems by integration techniques with either other energy resources or thermal energy storages (TES). The present works includes the hybrid solar drying through integra- tion with thermal backup unit. The experimental results on hybrid drying showed enhancement of 64.1% for Empty Fruit Bunch, and 61.1% for chili pepper, compared with open solar mode drying. Secondly, solar water heating was proved to be sufficient to supply hot water during the day and night time by integration with TES. The experimented system was able to maintain the water hot up to the next morning. On large scale and industrial application, experimental results on modified inclined solar chimney had shown enhancement via integration with wasted flue gas. By this technique, the system was developed to operate 24 hours a day. The efficiency was enhanced by 100% in case of hybrid operation compared with solar mode operation. The research results are demonstrating that the integra- tion techniques can contribute effectively in enhancing the performance of the thermal solar systems.


energy sustainability, hybrid solar dryer, PCM, solar chimney, solar energy, solar water heater, sustainability, TES, waste to energy


[1] Madhlopa, A. & Ngwalo, G., Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater. Solar Energy, 81, pp. 449–462. 2007. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solen- er.2006.08.008

[2] Thanaraj, T., Dharmasena, D.A.N. & Samarajeewa, U., Development of a rotary so- lar hybrid dryer for small scale copra processing. Tropical Agriculture Research, 16, pp. 305–315. 2004.

[3] Prasad, J. & Vijay, V., Experimental studies on drying of Zingiber officinale, Curcuma longa l. and Tinospora cordifolia in solar-biomass hybrid drier. Renewable Energy, 30, pp. 2097–2109. 2005. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2005.02.007

[4] Prasad, J., Vijay, V., Tiwari, G. & Sorayan, V., Study on performance evaluation of hy- brid dryer for turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) drying at village scale. Journal of Food Engi- neering, 75, pp. 497–502. 2006. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.061

[5] Tarigan, E. & Tekasakul, P., A mixed-mode natural convection solar dryer with bio- mass burner and heat storage back-up heater. Australia and New Zealand Solar Energy Society Annual Conference (ANZSES), 2005.

[6] Bena, B. & Fuller, J.R., Natural convection solar dryer with biomass back-up heater. So- lar Energy, 72, pp. 75–83, 2002. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0038-092x(01)00095-0

[7] Mastekbayeva, G.A., Bhatta, C.P., Augustus, M.L. & Kumar, S., Experimental studies on a hybrid dryer. Presented at the ISES 99 Solar World Congress, Israel, Energy, 4–9 July 1999. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-008043895-5/50241-1

[8] Serafica, E. & del Mundo, R., Design and qualitative performance of a hybrid solar- biomass powered dryer for fish. World Renewable Energy Regional Conference, Ja- karta, Indonesia, 18–21 April 2005.

[9] Bhattacharya, B.C., Ruangrungchaikul, T. & Pham, H.L., Design and performance of a hybrid solar/biomass energy powered dryer for fruits and vegetables. World Renewable Energy Conference, Brighton, UK, pp. 1–7, 2000. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978- 008043865-8/50240-3

[10] Kanmogne, A., Jannot, Y. & Nganhou, J., Design and realisation of a cocoa hybrid dryer for a rural zone. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), 4(6), pp. 201–213, 2014.

[11] Yunus, Y.Md., Al-Kayiem, H.H. & Albaharin, K.A.K., Design of a biomass burner/gas- to-gas heat exchanger for thermal backup of a solar dryer. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(11), pp. 1929–1936. 2011. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2011.1929.1936

[12] Yunus, Y.Md. & Al-Kayiem, H.H., Drying of EFB with hybrid solar/biomass thermal backup. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research, UMP, Malaysia, paper no. 265, 2013.

[13] Reis, A., Albuquerque, P., Almedia, F., Duarte, J., Martins, J. & Pereira, R., Water heat- ing by means of solar energy collecting barrels. Solar Collector Storage, Alternative Energy Sources IV, Vol. I, ed. T.N. Veziroglu, Ann Arbour Science: Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 101–111, 1982.

[14] Reddy, K.S., Avanti, P. & Kaushika, N.D., Finite time thermal analysis of ground integrated-storage solar water heater with transparent insulation cover. International Journal of Energy Research, 23, pp. 415–420.1999. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ (sici)1099-114x(199909)23:11<925::aid-er526>3.0.co;2-6

[15] Hamdan, M.A., Investigation of an inexpensive solar collector storage system. Energy Conversion Management, 39(5–6), pp. 415–420. 1998. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ s0196-8904(97)00020-4

[16] Beijer, H.A.de, Product development in solar wáter heating. Proceedings of 5th World Renewable Energy Congress, Pergamon Press: Florence, Italy, pp. 201–204. 1998. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-1481(98)00156-6

[17] Goetzberger, A. & Rommel, M., Prospect for integrated storage collector system in Europe. Solar Energy, 39, pp. 211–219. 1987. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0038- 092x(87)80030-0

[18] Shmidt, C., Goetzberger, A. & Shmidt, J., Test results and evaluation of integrated collector storage systems with transparent insulation. Solar Energy, 41(5), pp. 487–494. 1978. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-092x(88)90022-9

[19] Fluri, T.P., Turbine layout for and optimization of solar chimney power conversion units. PhD Thesis, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Univer- sity of Stellenbosch, 2008. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2008.05.001

[20] Gruenstein, E., Solar Tower Technology, available at www.brynmawr. edu/geology/206/ gruenstein2.htm.

[21] Chikere, A.O., Al-Kayiem, H.H. & Abdul Karim, Z.A., Review on the enhancement techniques and introduction of an alternate enhancement technique of solar chimney power plant. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(11), pp. 1877–1884, 2011. doi: http:// dx.doi.org/10.3923/jas.2011.1877.1884

[22] Kreetz, H., Theoretische Untersuchungen & Auslegung Eines Temporären Wasser- speichersfürdas Aufwindkraftwerk, Diploma Thesis, Technical University Berlin, 1997.

[23] Bernardes, M.A., dos S., Technical, economical and ecological analysis of solar chim- ney power plants, PhD Thesis, Universität Stuttgart, 2004.

[24] Hussain, A., Hybrid geothermal/solar energy technology for power generation, Higher Institute of Engineering, July 2007.

[25] Akbarzadeh, A., Johnson, P. & Singh, R., Examining potential benefits of combining a chimney with a salinity gradient solar pond for production of power in salt affected areas. Solar Energy, 83, pp. 1345–1359, 2009. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solen- er.2009.02.010

[26] Al-Kayiem, H.H., Git, H. M. & Lee. S.L., Experimental investigation on solar-flue gas chimney. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering USA, 3(9), pp. 25–31, 2009.

[27] Al-Kayiem, H.H., Sing, C.Y. &Yin, K.Y., Numerical simulation of solar chimney integrated with exhaust of thermal power plant, Chapter in the Special Session on Enhanced Heat Transfer, Book Title: Advanced Computational Methods and Experi- ments in Heat Transfer XII, WIT Transaction of Engineering (ISSN: 1743-3533), WIT Press: UK, 2012. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/ht120061

[28] Azeemuddin, I., Al-Kayiem, H.H. & Gilani, S.I., Simulation of a collector using waste heat energy in a solar chimney power plant system, Chapter in the book: The Sustain- able City VIII, Vol. 2, WIT Transaction on Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 179, ed. S.S. Zubir, C.A. Brebbia, Online ISSN: 1743-3541, Print ISBN: 978-1-84564-746-9, pp. 933–944, 2013. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2495/sc130792

[29] Azeemuddin, I., Al-Kayiem, H.H. & Gilani, S.I., Simulation of solar chimney power plant with an external heat source, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment, Published in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmen- tal Science, Vol. 16, 2013. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/16/1/012080

[30] http://www.desertec.org/concept/ (accessed on Feb 2014).