Experimental analysis of thermal and damage evolutions of DCFC under static and fatigue loading

Experimental analysis of thermal and damage evolutions of DCFC under static and fatigue loading

Jefri Bale Emmanuel Valot Martine Monin Olivier Polit Claude Bathias Tresna Soemardi 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nusa Cendana,Kupang-NTT, Indonesia

LEME - EA4416 - Univ. Paris Ouest - 50 rue de Sevres - 92410 Ville d’Avray - France

Department of Material Characterization and Validation, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Garenne Colombes (La), 92250, France

Laboratory of Mechanical & Biomechanical Design, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Indonesia, 16424 Depok, Indonesia

| |
| | Citation



Discontinuous carbon fibre composite (DCFC) is a new low-cost material that has already been applied for commercial components, such as window frames of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. Studying DCFC is very challenging because it does not show the same behaviour than conventional composites or isotropic materials. This work presents an experimental study of DCFC specimens submitted to static and fatigue tensile loading, based on mechanical and thermography non destructive evaluation (NDE) technique. An infra-red (IR) camera is used for real time monitoring of temperature change at the specimen outer surface. Under static loading, thermal response permits to well detect the early appearance of micro defects up to the final failure of DCFC material. Moreover, thermal response gives a good correlation with the damage evolution under fatigue loading. It is also shown that thermography method allows to successfully determine the high cycle fatigue strength (HCFS) of DCFC material.


carbon fibre, discontinuous reinforcement, fatigue, thermal analysis.

1. Introduction
2. Experimental Setup
3. Results and Discussion
4. Conclusion

This work was funded by PSA Peugeot Citroën in France as a collaboration project with LEME laboratory of University of Paris Ouest Nanterre-La Défense. The Ministries of Education and Culture of Indonesia provided the financial support for the PhD studies of the first author.


Bathias C. (2006). An engineering point of view about fatigue of polymer matrix composite materials. Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 28, pp. 1094–1099.

Bayraktar E., Antolovich S. D., Bathias C. (2008). New development in non-destructive controls of the composite materials and applications in manufacturing engineering. J. Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 206, pp. 30–44.

Bond M. D., Harper L. T., Turner T. A.,Warrior N. A. (2009). Full - field strain measurement of notched discontinuous carbon fibre composites. In Int. conf. composite materials (iccm17), edinburgh, uk.

Boursier B. (2001). New possibilities with hexmc, a high performance moulding compound. In 22nd sampe european conference.

Boursier B., Lopez A. (2010). Failure initiation and effect of defects in structural discontinuous fibre composites. In Hexcel research and technology, 2010 (http://www.hexcel.com).

Colombo C., Libonati F., Pezzani F., Salerno A., Vergani L. (2011). Fatigue behaviour of a gfrp laminate by thermographic measurements. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 10, pp. 3518–3527.

Colombo C., Libonati F., Vergani L. (2011). Study of the mechanical characteristics of gfrp by thermography. In Int. conf. composite structures (iccs16).

Curti G., La Rosa G., Orlando M., Risitano A. (1986). Analisi tramite infrarosso termico della ’temperatura limite’ in prove di fatica (in italian). In 14th aias italian national conference, pp. 211–220.

Feraboli P., Cleveland T., Ciccu M., Stickler P., DeOto L. (2010). Defect and damage analysis of advanced discontinuou carbon/epoxy composite materials. Composite Part A, Vol. 41, pp. 888–901.

Feraboli P., Peitso E., Cleveland T. (2009). Modulus measurement for prepeg-based discontinuous carbon fibre/epoxy systems. J. Comp. Materials, Vol. 43, No. 19, pp. 1947–1965.

Feraboli P., Peitso E., Cleveland T., Stickler P., Halpin C. J. (2009). Notched behaviour of prepeg-based discontinuous carbon fibre/epoxy systems. Composite Part A, Vol. 40, pp. 289–299.

Feraboli P., Peitso E., Deleo F., Cleveland T., Graves M., Stickler P. (2009). Characterization of prepeg-based discontinuous carbon fibre/epoxy systems. J. Reinforcement Plastic Composite, Vol. 28, pp. 1191–1214.

Harper L. T. (2006). Discontinuous carbon fibre composite for automotive applications. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham.

Kutin M., Ristic S., Puharic M., Vilotijevic M., Krmar M. (2011). Thermographic testing of epoxy-glass composite tensile properties. Contemporary Materials II, pp. 88–93.

Libonati F. (2010). Damage analysis of composite by means of thermography. In Symposium on experiment solid mechanics.

Meneghetti G., Quaresimin M., De Monte M. (2007). Fatigue strength assessment of a short fibre-reinforced plastic based on the energy dissipation. In Int. conf. composite materials (iccm16), kyoto, japan.

Montesano J., Fawaz Z., Bougherara H. (2013). Use of infrared thermography to investigate the fatigue behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite. Compos. Struct., Vol. 97, pp. 76–83.

Muneer K. M. M., Prakash R. V., Balasubramaniam K. (2009). Thermomechanical studies in glass/epoxy composite specimen during tensile loading. Engineering & Technology, Vol. 56, pp. 865–872.

Porter J. (2004). Moving closer to the goal of cost effective complex geometry carbon composite parts. In 19th asc technical conference, atlanta, usa.

Qian C., Harper L. T., Turner T. A., Warrior N. A. (2011). Notched behaviour of discontinuous carbon fibre composites: Comparison with quasi-isotropic non-crimp fabric. Composite Part A, Vol. 42, pp. 293–302.

Soemardi T. P., Lai D., Bathias C. (1991). Static and fatigue biaxial testing of fibre composite using thin walled tubular specimens. Springer Verlag (Germany).

Steinberger R., Valadas Leitao T., Ladstatter E., Pinter G., Billinger W., Lang R. (2006). Infrared thermographic techniques for non-destructive damage characterization of carbon fibre reinforced polymers during tensile fatigue testing. Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 28, No. 10, pp. 1340–1347.

Toubal L., Karama M., Lorrain B. (2006). Damage evolution and infrared thermography in woven composite laminates under fatigue loading. Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 28, pp. 1867–1872.

Toubal L., Lorrain B., Peyruseigt F., Karama M. (2005). Détermination de la limite d’endurance d’un carbone/époxy par analyse thermographique (in french). In 17ieme congrès français de mécanique.

Waas A. M., Hyun A. J., Khamseh A. R. (1998). Compressive failure of notched uniply composite laminates. Composite Part B, Vol. 29b, pp. 75–80.