# Blood Group Identification Based on Fingerprint by Using 2D Discrete Wavelet and Binary Transform

Blood Group Identification Based on Fingerprint by Using 2D Discrete Wavelet and Binary Transform

M. Mondal U.K. Suma M. Katun R. Biswas* Md. Rafiqul Islam

Mathematics Discipline, Science, Engineering and Technology School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh

Corresponding Author Email:
rajibkumath11@gmail.com
Page:
57-70
|
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.18280/mmc_c.802-404
1 April 2019
| |
Accepted:
22 May 2019
| | Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract:

Fingerprint is becoming the part of our day to day life right from our home to workplace. Now a day for security and safety purpose prime importance is given by it. Also, Fingerprint identification is one of the most popular biometric technologies and which is highly used in criminal investigations, commercial applications, and so on. The performance of a fingerprint image-matching algorithm depends heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images. It is very important to acquire good quality images to find out gender and blood group. The use of wavelet transform improves the quality of an image and reduces noise level. In this research, different compression techniques are used to overcome this problem.  Initially, different finger prints have been collected among the students of Mathematics discipline of Khulna University. Then the fingerprints have been resized to 320*256 and saved in JPEG format. Then, we have used different wavelets transformation for compression of the fingerprint images. Image qualities before compression and after compression are measured by Mean Squared Error (MSE), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). After that the images has been pre-processing and transformed into binary images. Further, from this binary image, pixel calculation such that numbers of black and white pixels have been calculated. After that, some mathematical calculations have been done to identify the genders and blood groups. This work has been done by MATLAB programming.

Keywords:

discrete wavelets, binary transform, blood group recognition, finger print

1. Introduction

Now a day, Fingerprint is most welcome objects to our human life. In criminal investigation, fingerprint concerns a vital role because every fingerprint has an individual characteristic there was no same pattern found between two persons. Also, fingerprint pattern will remain unchanged for the life of an individual; however, the print itself may change due to permanent scars and skin diseases. Further fingerprints have general characteristic ridge patterns that allow them to be systematically identified. Fingerprint is a made of a series of ridges and valleys on the surface of the finger. Due to this characteristic of fingerprint, this is very essential to justify any criminal. Also, fingerprint is used in gender and blood group identification.

Today, fingerprint recognition has been around the longest, and there are more commercial applications of it than iris recognition. For example, different types of fingerprint recognition devices can be found for network access and physical access entry configurations. A Study of fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and blood group has been presented by Narayana et al. [1]. A study of fingerprints in relation to gender and blood group was studied by Rastogi et al. [2]. Pattern of fingerprints in different ABO blood groups was published by Bharadwaja et al. [3]. Also, finger print identification was discussed by Surinder [4]. Further, relationship between pattern of fingerprints and blood groups was submitted by Smail et al. [5]. These types of work are done by different researcher with different observation as [6-16].

This research work is to be researched the blood group identification based on fingerprint by using 2D discrete wavelet and binary transform. Initially, different fingerprints have been collected, resized and saved in JPEG format. Then from this RGB image, we have found out its binary image and its black and white pixels number. Also, the length of binary number of black pixels, number of 0’s and number of 1’s are calculated. All have been done by MATLAB programming. After finding these values, we have used 4 steps of calculations. Then these 4 steps of calculations, which is identifies the different blood groups of the given fingerprints.

2. Experimental Data with All Information's

Table A: Experimental data with all information such as, serial number of fingerprints, name, original fingerprints, Gray scale fingerprints, Black and white fingerprints, gender and blood group has been shown in the following Table A:

Person ID

Original Fingerprints

Gray Scale Fingerprints

Black and White Fingerprints

Gender

Blood Group

1

Male

B+

2

Male

AB+

3

Female

O+

4

Male

AB+

5

Male

B+

6

Male

O+

7

Male

A+

8

Female

B+

9

Female

O+

10

Female

B+

11

Male

B+

12

Male

AB+

13

Female

O+

14

Male

B+

15

Female

O+

16

Male

O+

17

Male

O+

18

Male

AB+

19

Female

A+

20

Male

AB+

21

Male

AB+

22

Male

B+

23

Female

AB+

24

Male

B+

25

Male

B+

26

Male

O+

27

Female

A+

28

Female

AB+

29

Male

B+

30

Male

O+

31

Male

O+

32

Female

AB+

33

Male

B+

34

Male

A+

35

Male

AB+

36

Female

A+

37

Female

A+

38

Male

B+

39

Female

A+

40

Female

A+

41

Female

AB+

42

Female

O+

43

Female

A+

44

Female

O+

45

Male

A+

46

Male

AB+

47

Female

B+

48

Male

O+

49

Male

A+

50

Male

AB+

51

Female

A+

52

Female

B+

53

Male

B+

54

Female

A+

55

Female

O+

56

Female

O+

57

Female

AB+

58

Female

AB+

59

Female

A+

60

## 60.jpg

Female

A+

3. Working Procedure

In this experiment, we have collected 60 fingerprints (30 male fingerprints and 30 female fingerprints) with their only Rh+ ABO blood groups. For blood group identification, we have separated the 4 Rh+ ABO groups like, A+, B+, O+ and AB+. After performed these 4 steps calculations, we have obtained a good result where the following procedure has been done:

(1) At first, we have separated the all fingerprints into 4 Rh+ ABO groups (A+, B+, O+ and AB+) from the obtained prepossessing fingerprints.

(2) Number of White Pixels (NWP) and Number of Black Pixels (NBP) and Binary Length of Black Pixels (BLBP) for each fingerprint has been taken, which is already find out in chapter 3. In this chapter, we have taken those values to do perform the calculations.

(3) Subtraction (NBP-NWP) from Number of Black Pixels (NBP) to Number of White Pixels (NWP), number of 0’s (total number of digits 0) and 1’s (total number of digits 1) in the Binary Length of Black Pixels (BLBP) has been find out due to proper calculations of blood identification.

(4) All calculations have been done by MATLAB programming.

(5) The following steps has been followed for blood group identification:

 Step-1 For identification of blood group A+, Calculate Quotient $=\frac{\text { NBP }}{0^{\text {'}}sof \text { BLBP }}$ using MATLAB programming. Also, odd number quotient has been noted among the four blood groups. Step-2 For identification of blood group B+, Calculate Quotient $=\frac{\text { NWP-NBP }}{\text { B LBP }}$ using MATLAB programming. Also, odd number quotient has been noted among the four blood groups. Step-3 For identification of blood group AB+, Calculate Modulo $=\frac{\text { NBP }}{1^{\text {'}} \text {sof BLBP }}$ using MATLAB programming. Also, even number modulo has been noted among the four blood groups. Step-4 For identification of blood group O+, Calculate Quotient $=\frac{\text { NWP }}{1^{\text {'}} \text {sof BLBP }}$ using MATLAB programming. Also, even number quotient has been noted among the four blood groups.
4. Experimental Results

Experimental results are shown in the following table and discussions have been mention in the end of the Table 1.

Here, in Table 2. Number of Even Quotient =03 and Number of Odd Quotient=12.

So, the percentage of Number of Odd Quotient=80%.

Table 1. Results for step-1 on 15 fingerprints for blood group A+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 0’s Quotient Observation 7 13700 68220 17 11 6201 Odd 19 71431 10483 14 06 1747 Odd 27 70526 11394 14 10 1139 Odd 34 13915 68005 17 10 6800 Even 36 77195 4725 13 06 787 Odd 37 81077 843 10 04 211 Odd 39 69828 12092 14 06 2015 Odd 40 67257 14663 14 06 2443 Odd 43 71680 10240 14 12 853 Odd 45 38205 43715 16 07 6245 Odd 49 22838 59082 16 07 8440 Even 51 69865 12055 14 05 2411 Odd 54 69590 12330 14 08 1541 Odd 59 73640 8280 14 09 920 Even 60 78790 3130 12 06 521 Odd

Table 2. Results for step-1 on 15 fingerprints for blood group B+
 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 0’s Quotient Observation 1 6849 75071 17 07 10274 Even 5 31095 50825 16 09 5647 Odd 8 78270 3650 12 07 521 Odd 10 78076 3844 12 07 549 Odd 11 32525 49395 16 08 6174 Even 14 28542 53378 16 11 4852 Even 22 9327 72593 17 09 8065 Odd 24 17486 64434 16 05 12886 Even 25 63069 18851 14 06 3141 Odd 29 41857 40063 16 05 8012 Even 33 26842 55078 16 09 6119 Odd 38 19872 62048 16 09 6894 Even 47 29735 52185 13 06 8698 Even 52 67893 14027 14 05 2804 Even 53 16695 65225 16 05 13044 Even

Here, Number of Even Quotient =09 and Number of Odd Quotient=06.

So, the percentage of Number of Odd Quotient=40%.

Table 3. Results for step-1 on 15 fingerprints for blood group AB+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 0’s Quotient Observation 2 31004 50916 16 08 6364 Even 4 26925 54995 16 06 9165 Odd 12 24927 56993 16 07 8141 Odd 18 18560 63360 16 08 7920 Even 20 23744 58176 16 10 5817 Odd 21 15086 66834 17 13 5141 Odd 23 80744 1176 11 07 168 Even 28 78256 3664 12 07 523 Odd 32 68948 12972 14 07 1853 Odd 35 31352 50568 16 10 5056 Even 41 76483 5437 13 05 1087 Odd 46 29735 52185 16 06 8698 Even 50 32549 49371 16 08 6172 Even 57 67596 14324 14 04 3582 Even 58 72630 9290 14 06 1548 Even

Here, Number of Even Quotient =08 and Number of Odd Quotient=7.

So, the percentage of Number of Odd Quotient=46.67%.

Table 4. Results for step-1 on 15 fingerprints for blood group O+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 0’s Quotient Observation 3 27129 54791 16 08 6848 Even 6 9922 71998 17 09 7999 Even 9 67555 14365 14 07 2123 Odd 13 71480 10440 14 09 1160 Even 15 80744 1176 11 07 168 Even 16 12796 69124 17 12 5760 Even 17 36663 45257 16 09 5028 Even 26 3676 78244 17 10 7824 Even 30 18596 63324 16 05 12664 Even 31 32955 48965 16 06 8160 Even 42 79563 2357 12 06 392 Even 44 79810 2010 11 05 402 Even 48 31004 50916 16 08 6364 Even 55 75560 6360 13 07 908 Even 56 67993 13927 14 05 2785 Odd

Here, Number of Even Quotient =13 and Number of Odd Quotient=02.

So, the percentage of Number of Odd Quotient=13.33%.

Table 5. Results for step-2 on 15 fingerprints for blood group A+

 Person ID NWP NBP NWP-NBP BLBP Quotient Observation 7 13693 68227 54534 17 3207 Odd 19 71431 10483 60948 14 4353 Odd 27 70526 11394 59132 14 4223 Odd 34 13915 68005 54090 17 3181 Odd 36 77195 4725 72470 13 5574 Even 37 81077 843 80234 10 8023 Odd 39 69828 12092 57736 14 4109 Odd 40 67257 14663 52594 14 3756 Even 43 71680 10240 61440 14 4338 Even 45 38205 43715 5510 16 344 Even 49 22838 59082 36244 16 2265 Odd 51 69865 12055 57810 14 4129 Odd 54 69590 12330 57260 14 4090 Even 59 73640 8280 65360 14 4668 Even 60 78790 3130 75660 12 6304 Even

Here, Number of Even Quotient =07 and Number of Odd Quotient=08.

So, the percentage of Number of Odd Quotient=53.33%.

Table 6. Results for step-2 on 15 fingerprints for blood group B+

 Person ID NWP NBP NWP-NBP BLBP Quotient Observation 1 6849 75071 68222 17 4013 Odd 5 31095 50825 19730 16 1233 Odd 8 78270 3650 74620 12 6218 Even 10 78076 3844 74232 12 6187 Odd 11 32525 49395 16870 16 1053 Odd 14 28542 53378 24836 16 1551 Odd 22 9327 72593 63266 17 3721 Odd 24 17486 64434 46948 16 2933 Odd 25 63069 18851 44218 14 3158 Even 29 41857 40063 1794 16 113 Odd 33 26842 55078 28236 16 1763 Odd 38 19872 62048 42176 16 2635 Odd 47 29735 52185 22450 13 1725 Odd 52 67893 14027 53866 14 3847 Odd 53 16695 65225 48530 16 3033 Odd

Here, Number of Even Quotient =02 and Number of Odd Quotient=13.

So, the percentage of Number of Odd Quotient=86.66%.

Table 7. Results for step-2 on 15 fingerprints for blood group AB+

 Person ID NWP NBP NWP-NBP BLBP Quotient Observation 2 31004 50916 19912 16 1244 Even 4 26925 54995 28070 16 1754 Even 12 24927 56993 32066 16 2004 Even 18 18560 63360 44800 16 2800 Even 20 23744 58176 34432 16 2152 Even 21 15086 66834 51748 17 3044 Even 23 80744 1176 79568 11 7233 Odd 28 78256 3664 74592 12 6216 Even 32 68948 12972 55976 14 3998 Even 35 31352 50568 19216 16 1201 Odd 41 76483 5437 71046 13 5465 Odd 46 29735 52185 22450 16 1403 Odd 50 32549 49371 16822 16 1051 Odd 57 67596 14324 53272 14 3805 Odd 58 72630 9290 63340 14 4524 Even

Here, Number of Even Quotient =10 and Number of Odd Quotient=06.

So, the percentage of Number of Odd Quotient=40%.

Table 8. Results for step-2 on 15 fingerprints for blood group O+

 Person ID NWP NBP NWP-NBP BLBP Quotient Observation 3 27129 54791 27662 16 1778 Even 6 9922 71998 62076 17 3651 Odd 9 67555 14365 53190 14 3799 Odd 13 71480 10440 61040 14 4360 Even 15 80744 1176 79568 11 7233 Odd 16 12796 69124 56328 17 3313 Odd 17 36663 45257 8594 16 537 Odd 26 3676 78244 74568 17 4336 Even 30 18596 63324 44728 16 2795 Odd 31 32955 48965 16010 16 1000 Even 42 79563 2357 77206 12 6433 Odd 44 79810 2010 77800 11 7072 Even 48 31004 50916 19912 16 1244 Even 55 75560 6360 69200 13 5323 Odd 56 67993 13927 54066 14 3861 Odd

Here, Number of Even Quotient =06 and Number of Odd Quotient=09.

So, the percentage of Odd Number of Quotient=60%.

Table 9. Results for step-3 on 15 fingerprints for blood group A+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 1’s Modulo Observation 7 13693 68227 17 06 1 Odd 19 71431 10483 14 08 3 Odd 27 70526 11394 14 05 4 Even 34 13915 68005 17 07 0 Even 36 77195 4725 13 07 0 Even 37 81077 843 10 06 3 Odd 39 69828 12092 14 09 5 Odd 40 67257 14663 14 08 7 Odd 43 71680 10240 14 02 0 Even 45 38205 43715 16 06 5 Odd 49 22838 59082 16 09 6 Even 51 69865 12055 14 09 4 Even 54 69590 12330 14 05 0 Even 59 73640 8280 14 05 0 Even 60 78790 3130 12 06 4 Even

Here, Number of Even Modulo =09 and Number of Odd Modulo=06.

So, the percentage of Number of Even Modulo =60%.

Table 10. Results for step-3 on 15 fingerprints for blood group B+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 1’s Modulo Observation 1 6849 75071 17 10 1 Odd 5 31095 50825 16 07 5 Odd 8 78270 3650 12 05 0 Even 10 78076 3844 12 05 4 Even 11 32525 49395 16 08 3 Odd 14 28542 53378 16 05 3 Odd 22 9327 72593 17 08 1 Odd 24 17486 64434 16 11 3 Odd 25 63069 18851 14 10 1 Odd 29 41857 40063 16 11 1 Odd 33 26842 55078 16 09 7 Odd 38 19872 62048 16 07 0 Even 47 29735 52185 13 07 0 Even 52 67893 14027 14 09 5 Odd 53 16695 65225 16 11 4 Even

Here, Number of Even Modulo =05 and Number of Odd Modulo=10.

So, the percentage of Number of Even Modulo =33.33%.

Table 11. Results for step-3 on 15 fingerprints for blood group AB+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 1’s Modulo Observation 2 31004 50916 16 08 4 Even 4 26925 54995 16 10 5 Odd 12 24927 56993 16 09 5 Odd 18 18560 63360 16 08 0 Even 20 23744 58176 16 06 0 Even 21 15086 66834 17 04 2 Even 23 80744 1176 11 04 0 Even 28 78256 3664 12 05 4 Even 32 68948 12972 14 07 1 Odd 35 31352 50568 16 06 0 Even 41 76483 5437 13 08 5 Odd 46 29735 52185 16 10 5 Odd 50 32549 49371 16 08 4 Even 57 67596 14324 14 10 6 Even 58 72630 9290 14 08 2 Even

Here, Number of Even Modulo =10 and Number of Odd Modulo=05.

So, the percentage of Number of Even Modulo =66.67%.

Table 12. Results for step-3 on 15 fingerprints for blood group O+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 1’s Modulo Observation 3 27129 54791 16 08 5 Odd 6 9922 71998 17 08 6 Even 9 67555 14365 14 07 1 Odd 13 71480 10440 14 05 0 Even 15 80744 1176 11 04 0 Even 16 12796 69124 17 05 4 Even 17 36663 45257 16 07 3 Odd 26 3676 78244 17 07 5 Odd 30 18596 63324 16 11 8 Even 31 32955 48965 16 10 5 Odd 42 79563 2357 12 06 5 Odd 44 79810 2010 11 06 0 Even 48 31004 50916 16 08 4 Even 55 75560 6360 13 06 0 Even 56 67993 13927 14 09 4 Even

Here, Number of Even Modulo =09 and Number of Odd Modulo=06.

So, the percentage of Number of Even Modulo =60%.

Table 13. Results for step-4 on 15 fingerprints for blood group A+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 1’s Quotient Observation 7 13693 68227 17 06 2282 Even 19 71431 10483 14 08 8928 Even 27 70526 11394 14 05 14105 Odd 34 13915 68005 17 07 1987 Odd 36 77195 4725 13 07 11027 Odd 37 81077 843 10 06 11582 Even 39 69828 12092 14 09 7758 Even 40 67257 14663 14 08 8407 Odd 43 71680 10240 14 02 35840 Even 45 38205 43715 16 06 6367 Odd 49 22838 59082 16 09 2537 Odd 51 69865 12055 14 09 7762 Even 54 69590 12330 14 05 13918 Even 59 73640 8280 14 05 14728 Even 60 78790 3130 12 06 13131 Odd

Here, Number of Even Quotient =08 and Number of Odd Quotient=07.

So, the percentage of Number of Even Quotient=53.33%.

Table 14. Results for step-4 on 15 fingerprints for blood group B+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 1’s Quotient Observation 1 6849 75071 17 10 685 Odd 5 31095 50825 16 07 4442 Even 8 78270 3650 12 05 15654 Even 10 78076 3844 12 05 15615 Odd 11 32525 49395 16 08 4065 Odd 14 28542 53378 16 05 5708 Even 22 9327 72593 17 08 1165 Odd 24 17486 64434 16 11 1589 Odd 25 63069 18851 14 10 6306 Even 29 41857 40063 16 11 3805 Odd 33 26842 55078 16 09 2982 Even 38 19872 62048 16 07 2838 Even 47 29735 52185 13 07 4247 Odd 52 67893 14027 14 09 7543 Odd 53 16695 65225 16 11 1517 Odd

Here, Number of Even Quotient =06 and Number of Odd Quotient=09.

So, the percentage of Number of Even Quotient=40%.

Table 15. Results for step-4 on 15 fingerprints for blood group AB+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 1’s Quotient Observation 2 31004 50916 16 08 4250 Even 4 26925 54995 16 10 2692 Even 12 24927 56993 16 09 2769 Odd 18 18560 63360 16 08 2320 Even 20 23744 58176 16 06 3957 Odd 21 15086 66834 17 04 3771 Odd 23 80744 1176 11 04 20186 Even 28 78256 3664 12 05 15651 Odd 32 68948 12972 14 07 9849 Odd 35 31352 50568 16 06 5225 Odd 41 76483 5437 13 08 9560 Even 46 29735 52185 16 10 2973 Odd 50. 32549 49371 16 08 4068 Even 57 68570 13350 14 10 6857 Odd 58 72630 9290 14 08 9078 Even

Here, Number of Even Quotient =07 and Number of Odd Quotient=08.

So, the percentage of Number of Even Quotient=46.67%.

Table 16. Results for step-4 on 15 fingerprints for blood group O+

 Person ID NWP NBP BLBP 1’s Quotient Observation 3 27129 54791 16 08 3392 Even 6 9922 71998 17 08 1240 Even 9 67555 14365 14 07 9650 Even 13 71480 10440 14 05 14296 Even 15 80744 1176 11 04 20176 Even 16 12796 69124 17 05 2569 Odd 17 36663 45257 16 07 5238 Even 26 3676 78244 17 07 525 Odd 30 18596 63324 16 11 1690 Even 31 32955 48965 16 10 5495 Odd 42 79563 2357 12 06 13302 Even 44 79810 2010 11 06 13260 Even 48 31004 50916 16 08 3876 Even 55 75560 6360 13 06 12592 Even 56 67993 13927 14 09 7554 Even

Here, Number of Even Quotient =12 and Number of Odd Quotient=03.

So, the percentage of Number of Even Quotient=80%.

5. Results and Discussion

From the above Table-1, Table-2, Table-3 and Table-4, we can see that the percentage of Odd Number Quotient for blood group (A+) is greater than others blood groups. So, we conclude that, when we apply Step-1 for any one fingerprint whose blood group is unknown, his/her blood group probability (A+) will be 80%.

Also, we can see that the percentage of Odd Number Quotient for blood group (B+) is greater than others blood groups. So, we conclude that, when we apply Step-2 for any one fingerprint whose blood group is unknown, his/her blood group probability (B+) will be 86.67%. This observation is shown in the Table-5 to Table-8.

Further, the percentage of Even Number of Modulo for blood group (AB+) is greater than others blood groups. So, we conclude that, when we apply Step-3 for any one fingerprint whose blood group is unknown, his/her blood group probability (AB+) will be 66.67% all have are presented in the Table-9 to Table-12.

Again, from the above Table-13 toTable-16, we can see that the percentage Number of Even Quotient for blood group O+ is greater than others blood groups. So, we conclude that, when we apply Step-4 for any one fingerprint whose blood group is unknown, his/her O+ blood group probability will be 80%.

Therefore we conclude that, when we apply Step-1 for any one fingerprint whose blood group is unknown, his/her A+ blood group probability will be 80%; for Step-2 probability of B+ blood group will be 80.67%; for Step-3 probability of AB+ blood group will be 66.67% and for Step-4 probability of O+ blood group will be 80% which are shown in the above Table-1 to Table-16.

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