Land Use, Traffic Generation and Emissions in Formulating a Simplified Approach in Assessing Development Impacts in Residential Areas

Land Use, Traffic Generation and Emissions in Formulating a Simplified Approach in Assessing Development Impacts in Residential Areas

C.B. Schoeman I.M. Schoeman

Faculty of Engineering and Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North West University, South Africa

Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, North West University, South Africa

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The relationship between land use planning and traffic generation is internationally recognised. At the same time, the spatial impacts of unlocking land for development in terms of transit orientated development through corridor and nodal development; densification in integrating spatial development in urban context, urban development and regeneration are also evident. It represents implications for spatial systems and the environment in terms of factors such as traffic flows, traffic congestion, noise, emissions and traffic accidents. International research on theory and practical case studies revealed that planning activities are mostly undertaken by professions such as urban and regional planners; transportation engineers and environmental practitioners. Limited multi-disciplinary practices related to integrated land use, transportation, traffic and environmental management plans for residential areas are undertaken with exception of isolated thematically consultation. However, specialisation in integrated research (theory) in focuses such as land use management; transportation and emissions impacts are evident. Development approaches in modelling of such focusses necessitates integration as illustrated in various urban system studies undertaken. Development of applicable decision support systems for residential areas through multi-disciplinary planning will enhance accountability in land use densification and development of new township extensions. Application of improved technology in terms of vehicles will affect levels of emissions/pollution while land use planning is guided by accessibility, density and spatial form and especially in residential areas. In planning and research, the application of key performance indicators through estimated passenger car units per land use category, road classes, densities and estimated pollution impacts are fundamental for resilience and sustainability in spatial planning and quality of living in residential neighbourhoods. The objective of the paper will be to address this interface in residential areas through development of a simplified practical assessment and development approach for initial impact overview informing detailed planning and decision making. It will assist in selecting the best and preferred development scenarios and to guide actions and input by stakeholders affected by planning proposals. It thus precedes formal modelling exercises related to planning (land use), transportation and environmental planning through normal project life cycle integration.


development impact overview, environmental management, land use, project life cycle integration, spatial impacts and traffic generation


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