Observations on Silage Making of Landscape Conocarpus Browse Residues as Feed Ingredient in Kuwait

Observations on Silage Making of Landscape Conocarpus Browse Residues as Feed Ingredient in Kuwait

Z. Baroon M.A. Razzaque 

Biotechnology Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait

Aridland Agriculture and Greenery Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait

30 September 2013
| Citation



There is a chronic shortage of local feeds in Kuwait, and almost 95% of total feeds are expensively imported. Therefore, efforts were focused to explore the possible utilization of locally available landscape browse resi- dues as feed ingredients. Landscape greenery residues have increased with locally implemented greenery programs. Conocarpus lancifolius is an ornamentally predominant tree among landscape plantations, daily resulting in over 120 t of residual by-products without being utilized. Ensiling, was considered as a techni- cally sound strategy for proper utilization of Conocarpus residues as an upgraded feed ingredient substituting imported conventional feeds. A total premix of 24 t of silage was prepared in pilot-scale trench silos for 30 days. Nutritional value of Conocarpus silage was evaluated, where mean values of 4.2 ± 0.12, 4.95 ± 0.32%, and 7.3 × 108 ± 0.12 colony forming units (CFU)/g of silage for pH, lactic acid, and lactic acid bacteria were achieved, respectively. Palatability and feeding trials were performed for four months on 60 growing heifers of Holstein–Friesian breed grouped in six dietary treatments. Formulated feed rations contained 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60% silage partially replacing conventional roughages (alfalfa, hay straw). Control dietary treatment contained 100% conventional feed ingredients. Daily dry matter intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p > 0.05) high. Results showed that grossly 40% of the conventional roughages could be replaced by the ensiled Conocarpus greenery browse residues. Cost/benefit analysis was carried out on pilot-scale production of Cono- carpus silage, confirming a feasible, low cost, and competitive product where the cost was calculated to be Kuwaiti Dinar 33 (US$ 120)/t silage. Break-even point could be achieved after 30 months with production of 3,159 t silage. Potentially, low-cost Conocarpus silage could partially substitute expensive imported rough- ages, thereby alleviating feed shortage and, currently, promoting livestock production.


competitive, ensiling, feasible, imported, nutritional, palatability, shortage


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