What Drives Sustainable Organizational Citizenship Behavior

What Drives Sustainable Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Juliana* Amelda Pramezwary Diena M. Lemy Rudy Pramono Jimmy Muller Hasoloan Situmorang Arifin Djakasaputra

Hospitality Management, School of Hospitality & Tourism, Pelita Harapan University, Tangerang 15811, Indonesia

Master of Tourism, School of Hospitality & Tourism, Pelita Harapan University, Tangerang 15811, Indonesia

Management Study Program, Faculty of Economy and Business Management, Universitas Tarumanagara, Jakarta 11470, Indonesia

Corresponding Author Email: 
Juliana.stpph@uph.edu
Page: 
1403-1410
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.18280/ijsdp.170503
Received: 
11 April 2022
|
Accepted: 
15 July 2022
|
Published: 
31 August 2022
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the organizational justice variable, organizational commitment, job satisfaction on the sustainable organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) variable in food producers. A cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire was distributed in this study, the sample was determined using a slovin approach, and the total number of respondents was 159. The structural equation modeling (SEM) software SmartPLS 3.3.3 was used as the analytical tool. Data for research was gathered through the distribution of online questionnaires. According to the findings of this study, organizational justice variables have a positive and significant impact on the OCB variable. This demonstrates that the higher the organizational justice variable given to food producers in Banten, the higher the employee's sustainable Organizational citizenship Behavior variable will be. The organizational commitment variable influences the OCB variable in a positive and significant way. This indicates that the higher the level of the employee's sustainable OCB variable, the higher the level of the employee's organizational commitment. Furthermore, job satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on long-term OCB. This shows that the higher the employee's job satisfaction, the higher the employee's sustainable Organizational citizenship Behavior variable will be.

Keywords: 

organizational justice, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, sustainable organizational citizenship behavior

1. Introduction

Human resources, as one of the most important aspects of any organization, should not be overlooked. As a result, the human factor is crucial in achieving organizational goals. Human resources not only help the organization achieve its goals, but they also help determine what can be accomplished with the available resources. Organizations with strong human resources will be able to compete more effectively [1]. Without employees, organizations cannot realize all of their plans, because their the ones that will be able to develop the company [2].

The ability and expertise of the leadership in carrying out company functions such as marketing, production, finance, administration, and personnel is very important in achieving the goals of a company, both private and state-owned companies or the public sector [3]. The company's functions are inextricably linked to one another. However, when compared to other company functions, the personnel function plays a very strategic role. The food industry requires employees with high OCB behavior to produce good results [2, 4].

Employees' OCB behavior can be influenced by a variety of factors, including those related to organizational justice. This is accordance with the research, conducted by the studies in ref. [5-7] that organizational justice has a positive and significant effect on OCB. Furthermore, Damirchi et al. [8] discovered a significant relationship between organizational justice variables and each of its dimensions (distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice). Organizational justice is a concept that states employees' perceptions of how they are treated fairly in the organization and how organizational outcomes affect them [6, 7]. Initially, most organizational justice research focused on two-factor models of justice: distributive justice and procedural justice.

OCB is linked to a variety of organizational outcomes that influence employee behavior. Citizenship behavior is described as employee’s -controlled behavior that may or may not be rewarded by the company, but which contributes to the organization by increasing the overall quality of the work environment [9].

Organizational justice is a concept that states employees' perceptions of how they are treated fairly in the organization and how organizational outcomes affect them [6, 7]. Initially, most organizational justice research focused on two-factor models of justice: distributive justice and procedural justice. A variety of factors, including those related to organizational justice, can influence employees' OCB behavior [5, 10, 11]. There is a strong relationship between organizational justice and OCB [5-7]. Previous research, ref. [5] shows that organizational justice has a positive and significant effect on OCB. Study of ref. [8] discovered a significant relationship between organizational justice variables and each of its dimensions (distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice).

Distributive justice is defined as an individual’s sense of fairness, or the allocation of decisions outcomes that are suitable for the employee. Employee perceptions which they are treated fairly in the organization, and how these perceptions affect employee’s loyalty to the organization, such as commitment and satisfaction as referred to organizational justice.

Sustainable OCB is influenced by organizational commitment as well as organizational justice. According to Commitment is one of the factors known to have a strong influence on OCB behavior [12, 13]. Concluded that organizational commitment has a positive and significant effect on OCB [14]. According to the studies of ref. [12, 15-17] whom conducted research on the effect of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on OCB, the conclusion that can be obtained is that there is a positive and significant influence between job satisfaction and organizational commitment to OC behavior, either concurrently or partially. Employees who are highly committed will make every effort to meet and even exceed the company's expectations. Organizational commitment occurs when an individual identifies with a specific organization and its goals and wishes to remain a member of the organization. Organizational commitment, according to the studies of ref. [12] is an attitude that reflects the extent to which an individual knows and is bound to his organization. Anyone who joins the organization is expected to make a commitment.

Employees who are committed to their organization will act in ways such as viewing the organization's goals and benefits as their own, taking risks for the organization, and wanting to stay in the organization, so it is hope that the level of employees desire to resign will decrease and employee performance will increase to produce company effectiveness. Organizational commitment is viewed as an important and desired component of employee behavior, although it is elusive in workplaces and organizations [18]. According to Zeinabadi and Salehi [19] low commitment to the organization demonstrates an employee's lack of responsibility in carrying out his work; commitment is low or difficult to implement because the company employs its employees through a contract system. According to the studies of ref. [19-22] it is pleasant emotional attitude that creates love in employees work. Work morale, discipline, and performance all reflect this attitude. If an employee feels he is receiving high satisfaction from his work thus far, he will be happy and comfortable with the organization. Job satisfaction, according to the studies of ref. [19] is an individual thing because each individual has a different level of satisfaction based on the values that apply to each individual. The more aspects of the work that are in accordance with the individual's wishes, the greater the level of satisfaction felt by the individual. As a result, no business can achieve high levels of performance unless each employee is committed to the firm's goals and works as part of a cohesive team [23]. Based on the background from the research above, the formulation of this research questions will be: Does organizational commitment have an effect on sustainable OCB? Does organizational justice affect sustainable OCB? Does job satisfaction affect sustainable OCB?

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the organizational justice variable, organizational commitment, job satisfaction on the sustainable OCB variable in food producers.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Organizational justice and sustainable organizational citizenship behavior

According to Zhao et al. [2], job satisfaction is a worker's assessment of how far their job as a whole satisfies their needs. Job satisfaction is a pleasant feeling that arises as a result of individual perceptions in order to complete tasks or meet their needs in order to obtain work values that are important to them. Job satisfaction, according to the studies of ref. [2-4] is a key driver of employee morale, discipline, and work performance in supporting the achievement of company goals. According to the studies of ref. [2-4, 24], organizational justice and dimensions of justice have a positive and significant relationship with OCB, when employees have doubts about the organization's justice, they tend to lose interest in it and show a reluctance to pursue organizational goals. According the studies of ref. [8, 25-30], organizational justice has a significant relationship with organizational citizenship behaviors of employees. The following hypotheses can be advanced based on previous research's theoretical foundation:

H1: Organizational justice has a positive and significant impact on sustainable organizational citizenship behavior.

2.2 Organizational commitment and sustainable organizational citizenship behavior

Organizational commitment, as defined by Somunoğlu et al. [31] is the degree to which an individual adopts an organization's values and aims. Organizational commitment is an important characteristic that determines a range of organizational outcomes such as employee work performance and job satisfaction, personnel turnover, and organizational citizenship behavior.

Human resources are critical to the success of any organization. Human resources are regarded as the most important component of any organization; without people, nothing would be done [32] The value placed on organizational commitment can be described to the fact that it leads to a number of positive consequences for both individuals and businesses [33]. Organizational commitment has also piqued people's curiosity, as it is considered as a key component of cooperation and consensus in a well-functioning organization. The attachment, identity, or allegiance to the entity of commitment can be characterized as commitment [34]. Research according to the studies of ref. [5, 7, 10, 35], there was a positive and significant influence between organizational commitment to OCB. Organizational commitment is one of the factors that can help improve OCB in a company [36]. These volunteer efforts are viewed as evidence of excellent citizenship in the organization. Affective commitment is defined as a good attitude toward a company [37]. The majority of organizational commitment research has been guided either by social identity theory and its related body of literature (e.g. [38-40]).

H2: Organizational commitment has a positive and significant impact on sustainable organizational citizenship behavior.

2.3 Job satisfaction and sustainable organizational citizenship behavior

According to research, an employee who is satisfied with his or her job will exhibit OCB behavior. According to Karriker and Williams [12], there was a significant effect of job satisfaction on OCB. by conducting research Job satisfaction. The higher the employee's OCB behavior, the higher the employee's job satisfaction. Another study, conducted by Iswara Putra and Dewi [14] discovered a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and OCB. Furthermore according to the studies of ref. [15-17, 41, 42] job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on OCB. Job satisfaction functions as a mediator in the association between Person's job fit and OCB dimensions [43]. The following hypotheses can be advanced based on the theoretical foundation and the findings of previous studies:

H3: Job satisfaction has a positive and significant impact on sustainable organizational citizenship behavior.

3. Method

This research method is quantitative [44]. The population of this research is all employees of food producers, totalling 159 people. The method of determining the sample used in this study is a simple random sampling method. Simple random sampling is a technique of taking samples from members of the population at random without regard to the existing strata in the population. The method of determining the sample in this study was carried out with a slovin approach so that the number of respondents was 159 people. The analytical tool used is structural equation modeling (SEM) using SmartPLS 3.3.3 software. Research data obtained through the distribution of online questionnaires. Questionnaire was used for data collection about variables in this study. Validity and reliability are two crucial criteria for determining the primary data's quality and utility. Validity concerns accuracy and if the instrument measures what it claims to measure, whereas reliability concerns precision and is used to assess the questionnaire's consistency and stability [45, 46] Organizational justice were measured by 4 item indicators. Sustainable Organizational citizenship behaviors were measured by 4 item indicators. Job Satisfaction were measured by 4 items indicators and organizational commitment were measured by 4 items indicators as well.

The PLS method and bootstrapping statistics were used to determine the path significance at a bias-corrected confidence interval of 95 percent or above [47]. To evaluate the hypotheses, a structural equation model with partial least squares analysis was used [48]. The SEM (Structural Equation Model) analysis approach was employed to analyze the data in this study. SEM is a statistical technique for analyzing the pattern of relationships between latent constructs and their indicators, as well as latent constructs and each other, and direct measurement errors [49]. Hair et al. [50] defined SEM as a family of multivariate dependent statistics that allows for direct analysis between many dependent and independent variables. The covariance base of the SEM model should be built based on a solid theory with the goal of confirming the model with empirical data, whereas the variant-based model focuses more on the prediction model with theoretical solid backing being less crucial [51].

4. Analysis and Findings

4.1 Validity test and reliability test

SmartPLS 3.0 software can be used to test the validity [45]. The results of the validity test, are said to be valid if there is an outer loading value of the indicator for each variable more than 0.70. However, at the beginning of doing research if the loading value between 0.50 and 0.60 is said to be sufficient. Judging from Figure 1, it proves that all variables have outer loadings above 0.05, so all variables in Table 1 have good convergent validity.

Figure 1. Result model

Table 1. Validity and reliability test

Variables

Cronbach's Alpha

Composite Reliability

(AVE)

Organizational justice (OJ)

0.789

0.889

0.689

Organizational commitment (OC)

0.712

0.864

0.676

Job satisfaction (JS)

0.769

0.812

0.669

Sustainable

organizational citizenship behavior

0.712

0.867

0.678

The reliability test according to Hair et al. [52] is that if it has a composite reliability value of more than 0.70 it indicates good reliability. In Table 1 shows that each variable has a composite reliability value higher than 0.70. Thus, the above variables include good composite reliability. According to ref [46], the value of Croanbach's alpha can be used if the value is above 0.60. Table 1 above explains that each variable has a value higher than 0.60. So it can be concluded that it is a good Cronbach's alpha.

4.2 R-square analysis

In Table 2, the model of the influence of Organizational justice (OJ), Organizational commitment (OC), Job satisfaction (JS) gets an R-square with a value of 0.949 and it can also be interpreted that Organizational justice (OJ), Organizational commitment (OC), Job satisfaction (JS) can explain 94.9% of sustainable organizational citizenship behavior (SOCB) and 5.1% of other variables not found in this study.

Table 2. R square

Dependent variables

R Square

R Square Adjusted

Sustainable organizational citizenship behavior (SOCB)

0.949

0.928

In Figure 1 it is explained that the t-statistics value of the influence between variables with a t value>1.96 and p value <0.050. Thus, it can be explained that the independent variable is able to significantly influence the dependent variable (see Figure 1).

4.3 Organizational justice (OJ) and sustainable citizenship behavior

According to the testing results, the Organizational Justice (OJ) variable has a positive and significant effect on Sustainable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (p value 0.000). (SOCB). According to the studies of ref. [8, 25-30] organizational justice (OJ) has a positive and significant effect on Sustainable organizational citizenship behavior (SOCB) (see Table 3).

Table 3. Hypothesis testing

Correlation

Original Sample (O)

T Statistics

P Values

Organizational justice sustainable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (SOCB)

0.267

2.733

0.000

Organizational commitment (OC) Sustainable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (SOCB)

0.577

2.910

0.000

Job satisfaction (JS)Sustainable Organizational Citizenship Behavior (SOCB)

0.152

7.023

0.000

4.4 Organizational commitment (OC) and sustainable citizenship behavior

According to the testing results, the Organizational commitment (OC) variable has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (p value 0.000). (SOCB). According to the studies of ref. [5, 7, 10, 35] organizational commitment (OC) has a positive and significant effect on sustainable organizational citizenship behavior (SOCB).

4.5 Job satisfaction (JS) and sustainable citizenship behavior

According to the testing results, the Job satisfaction (JS) variable has a positive and significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (p value 0.000). (OCB). According to the studies of ref. [15-17, 41, 42] job satisfaction (JS) has a positive and significant effect on sustainable organizational citizenship behavior.

4.6 Finding

The impact of organizational justice on employees' long-term SOCB obtained findings indicating that organizational justice has a positive and statistically significant effect on employee SOCB.

This means that the higher the SOCB level, the better the organizational justice provided by food producers. The above-average indicator, namely the indicator I consider my workload to be fair enough; the overall indicator of the award I received was fair; and my supervisor's indicator clarifies the decision by providing additional information when requested by the employee, all contributed to this significant influence. This study expands on the study of ref. [53] research, which discovered that organizational justice has a positive and significant effect on employee OCB. Employees' feelings and acceptance of fairness and their reactions to work outcomes in the organization.  The findings of ref. [13, 15, 16] all point to a positive and significant relationship between organizational justice and dimensions of justice and OCB. The relationship between the dimensions of justice and sustainable OCB was found to be significant. Organizational justice (OJ) can be regarded as individual conceptions of justice in the workplace [54]. Organizational citizenship behaviour is a term used to describe constructive employee behaviours and actions that are not mandatory, but discretionary, behaviours performed voluntarily to support and benefit the organisation and employees [55]. Job satisfaction refers to the degree to which individuals feel positive or negative towards the aspects of their jobs [56].

The impact of job satisfaction on employees' ability to sustain OCB obtained findings indicating that job satisfaction has a positive and statistically significant effect on employee OCB This means that the higher the OCB level, the higher the satisfaction provided by food producers. This significant influence was contributed by an above-average indicator, namely the indicator that all employees have the opportunity for advancement; and indicators of a conducive work environment that can make employees feel comfortable. This study expands on research conducted by Farid et al. [5] who discovered that an employee who is satisfied with his job will exhibit OCB behavior. According to Jehanzeb and Mohanty [7], job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on OCB. The higher the employee's OCB behavior, the higher the employee's job satisfaction. In theory, the findings of this study show that organizational justice, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction all have a positive and significant effect on employee OCB. As a result, the findings research is expected to benefit food producers leaders and employees.

Management and employees are expected to improve fairness and commitment within the company in order to foster good cooperation with coworkers, resulting in faster and more efficient employee performance in the company.

Organizational justice is a motivator for employees to keep their capabilities and competitive advantage. Employee involvement and presence in the organization, as well as the feeling of maintaining their membership, are based on the existence of justice that is actually accepted in the organization, which causes employees to stay in the organization. Work involvement, in addition to organizational justice, can influence employee commitment in an organization. Job involvement is defined as people's mental and emotional involvement in group situations that encourages them to contribute to group goals and various responsibilities for achieving goals. Work involvement has been defined as people in an organization internalizing the values of goodness and importance of work. It is also defined as the extent to which work is recognized as a significant factor in meeting one or more of an employee's needs. Organizational justice is a concept that depicts employees' perceptions of how fairly they are treated in the organization. Organizational justice can be defined as a general perception of what is fair in the workplace. Employees believe their organization is fair when they believe the results they receive, as well as the manner in which they are received, are fair. Organizational justice is defined as the degree to which a person feels treated equally in the organization where he works. All employees are treated fairly, as evidenced by salary standardization and equal treatment from owners to employees. Job satisfaction is positively influenced by organizational justice. This means that the higher the level of satisfaction felt by employees in their organization, the higher the level of justice felt by employees. Organizational justice has a significant and positive impact on organizational commitment. This means that the greater the level of fairness perceived by employees at work, the greater the level of commitment held by the employees themselves. Job satisfaction has a significant and positive impact on organizational commitment. This means that the higher the level of job satisfaction felt by employees at work, the greater the level of commitment the employees themselves possess.

OCB in the workplace can foster a supportive, mutually reinforcing, and complementary environment, allowing organizational stability to be maintained and performance to improve. OCB is an extraneous behavior that is not part of an employee's formal work obligations but serves to effectively support the organization. The benefits of OCB to the company include increased coworker productivity, increased efficiency in the use of organizational resources for productive purposes, as an effective means of coordinating activities between team members and work groups, and the ability to save energy, which is a scarce resource. to maintain group functions, increase manager productivity, increase the organization's ability to obtain and maintain reliable resources by giving the impression that the organization is a more appealing place to work, and increase organizational performance stability, which can increase the organization's ability to adapt to environmental changes the business.

An organization operates on the basis of collaboration. Teamwork can be effective when there is synergy among team members who are good employees. Sometimes a problem arises in the execution of work by one of the team members, which, if left unchecked, will interfere with the team's overall performance. As a result, it is necessary to have other employees who are willing to assist his problematic colleague with his work even though it is not his duty or job. Organizational Citizenship Behavior refers to this extra level of willingness to work. As a result, the OCB factor has a significant impact on an organization's success. Employees want to do extra tasks such as cooperating, helping, giving advice, participating actively, providing additional services to customers, and making the best use of their work time. Organizations with employees who exhibit good organizational citizenship behavior will perform better. Organizational Citizenship Behavior is the behavior of independent individuals that is not directly or explicitly recognized by the reward system and contributes to the organization's effective functioning.

5. Conclusions

Organizational justice has a positive and significant impact on the SOCB of employees at Banten food producers This demonstrates that the higher the SOCB of employees, the better the organizational justice provided by food manufacturers in Banten. Employee SOCB is positively influenced by organizational commitment. This demonstrates that the higher the organizational commitment of food producers, the higher their SOCB level. Employee SOCB is positively influenced by job satisfaction. This demonstrates that the higher the job satisfaction of food manufacturer employees in Banten, the higher their SOCB level will be.

Companies must pay attention to SOCB indicators related to employee respondents who are still low on indicators, such as “being willing to replace colleagues who do not come or take a break and who always participate in company activities”. Indicators of organizational justice related to employee respondents remain low, such as my supervisor ensuring that all employee concerns are heard before employment decisions are made, my supervisor collecting complete information to make job decisions, and my manager explaining in detail every decision made regarding my job. Companies must also pay attention to organizational commitment indicators, which are still low as evidenced by the number of employee respondents to organizational commitment, namely never considering leaving this company, “It is difficult for me to leave this company because I am afraid of not being able to find work elsewhere", and "leaving this company will always be a loss for me”.

Because variable job satisfaction remains low, companies must also pay attention to job satisfaction indicators seen in employee respondents, such as the salary paid to employees in accordance with the work assigned and the available facilities and infrastructure that can help complete the work. As a result of the preceding indicators, there is still a lack of organizational justice, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction on sustainable OCB for food industry employees. It is hoped that additional research will be conducted in areas other than the hotel or restaurant industry, such as health, finance, banking, and other industrial sectors. Furthermore, additional variables, such as loyalty, work stress, empowerment, productivity, work discipline, and others, can be added by future researchers.

Researchers and practitioners must find initiatives that work for strengthening team members' commitment, thereby increasing organizational citizenship behavior in the organization, in addition to developing self-directed teams and assigning performance targets. It is hoped that this study will contribute to a better understanding of the link between job happiness and sustainable organizational citizenship behavior, which has long been recognized but not fully characterized. Organizational commitment and SOCB and organizational justice and SOCB. Furthermore, using cross-validation, confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability testing, the research produces what appears to be a robust and reliable measure of team commitment.

Acknowledgment

The author would like to thank LPPM Pelita Harapan University for providing and funding the opportunity to conduct this research.

Appendix

Variable

Conceptual Definition

Operational Definition

Scale

Organizational Justice

Organizational justice (OJ) can be regarded as individual conceptions of justice in the workplace [54].

Employees' feelings and acceptance of fairness and their reactionsto work outcomes in the organization.

  1. I am treated fairly at work
  2. Act procedurally
  3. I feel accepted and trusted
  4. I get the correct information needs to be collected and used in the decision-making process.

1-5

Organizational Commitment

Organizational commitment, as defined by [31] is the degree to which an individual adopts an organization's values and aims. Organizational commitment is an important characteristic that determines a range of organizational outcomes such as employee work performance and job satisfaction, personnel turnover, and organizational citizenship behavior.

Commitment can be defined as the attachment, identification, or loyalty to the entity of commitment [34].

  1. I believe that loyalty to the company is an important factor
  2. Loyalty to the company is my main principle
  3. Loyalty to the company is an important factor
  4. It's not easy if you want to move to another company

1-5

Sustainable Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Organizational citizenship behaviour is a term used to describe constructive employee behaviours and actions that are not mandatory, but discretionary, behaviours performed voluntarily to support and benefit the organisation and employees [55].

  1. I regularly participate in activities held by the organization where I work
  2. I participate and participate in alleviating related to work-related problems
  3. Have the opportunity to develop a career within the company
  4. Get the opportunity to develop my knowledge and skills

1-5

Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction refers to the degree to which individuals feel positive or negative towards the aspects of their jobs [56].

  1. The compensation provided by the company can provide future certainty
  2. can do things that are not against my principles
  3. The company has a compensation policy that is better than the average of similar companies
  4. The salary I receive is in accordance with the workload

1-5

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