Economics and Tourism as Agents of Global Connection: Garut Mid-19th Century to Mid-20th Century

Economics and Tourism as Agents of Global Connection: Garut Mid-19th Century to Mid-20th Century

Rudy PramonoAmos Sukamto Juliana Juliana Diena M. Lemy 

School of Tourism, Pelita Harapan University, M.H Thamrin Boulevard Diponegoro 1100, Tangerang 15811, Indonesia

School of Theology, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi INTI, Bandung 40242, Indonesia

Corresponding Author Email:
3 January 2022
3 March 2022
16 March 2022
Available online: 
26 April 2022
| Citation



The beauty of Garut has been tempting many tourists to enjoy it since the early 20th century. Tourists who visit not only come from within but also from abroad. Studies on tourism in Garut have not received much attention. Scholars usually take Garut as a place of research; the topics discussed are related to social movements during the Dutch and Post-Independence periods. In Christian mission activities, there are multiple motives or impure motives. One of which is romantic motives, namely motives driven by the desire to go to distant and exotic lands and nations. So not infrequently, the mission staff are also interested in recording the tourism sector. This research will focus on examining Garut's economic and tourism development and Global connections in the zending Nederlandsche Zendingsvereeniging (NZV) records. This study uses the historical method using observation and secondary data, consisting of four stages: Heuristics, Critique of Interpretation, and Historiography. The study results stated that Garut made many foreigners live in this region. The progress of transportation built by the Dutch East Indies government had opened the door for tourism development in Garut. The natural beauty of Garut has invited many tourists to visit this area. This tourist visit has grown the new business in the Garut area, namely the construction of various tourism facilities such as hotels, tourism agents, and books containing tourism information in Garut. The following discussion and managerial implications are identified based on empirical findings.


economic, tourism, global local connection, Garut

1. Introduction

Tourism is particularly vulnerable to measures to fight the pandemic due to limited mobility and social distancing [1]. Tourism has been overgrown in Indonesia in recent years and has become one of the primary sources of foreign currency earnings. However, Indonesia has rich and diverse natural assets [2]. Tourism is an important indicator of economic and socio-cultural development [3]. Disease outbreaks and pandemics have long played a role in social and economic change. However, the nature of such change is selective, meaning that it is sometimes minimal and, other times, the change or transformation may be unexpected, potentially even reinforcing contemporary paradigms. A comprehensive overview of the pandemic and its effects is provided. It is being used to help contextualize the COVID-19 pandemic, its impact on tourism, and the response of governments, industry, and consumers [4]. The concept of sustainable tourism must be reinterpreted within an overarching paradigm that incorporates various approaches to the tourism/environmental system within the destination. This approach is described for multiple abstract situations to demonstrate the legitimacy of different perceptions of sustainable tourism [5]. Garut Regency is one of the provinces in West Java located in the southern part. This regency has an administrative area of 306,519 hectares, bordered by Bandung Regency and Sumedang Regency in the north, by Tasikmalaya Regency in the east, Indonesia Ocean in the south, and in the West by Bandung Regency and Cianjur Regency [6]. Garut City is located 717 meters above sea level with very cool air and a humid tropical climate. The district area consists of two landscapes, namely plains and mountainous basins and a series of active volcanoes such as G. Guntur, G. Papandayan, G. Cikuray, G. Talagabodas, and in the southern part consists of plains and coasts with a coastline of 80 km [6]. The natural conditions as above are very suitable for agriculture and as a charming tourism location. The beauty of Garut, which has tempted many tourists to enjoy it, is not only a present-day story, but before the mid-20th century, its beauty has attracted many beetles to come to it. The beetles that come to enjoy the beauty of Garut not only come from within and from abroad. The foreign tourists who come to Garut come from various countries such as America, England, Australia, the Netherlands, and Japan. Some famous figures who had visited Garut were King Leopold and his consort Astrid, Charlie Chaplin, Renate Muller, and Hans Albers [7].

The rapidly developing relationship between tourism and Creativity arguably marks the 'creative turn' in tourism studies. Creativity has been used to transform traditional cultural tourism, shifting from tangible heritage to a more intangible culture and greater engagement with the everyday life of destinations. The emergence of 'creative tourism' reflects the growing integration between tourism and different place-building strategies, including promoting creative industries, creative cities, and 'creative classes'. Creative tourism can also be considered a way out of serial reproduction of mass cultural tourism, offering a more flexible and authentic experience that can be co-created between hosts and tourists [8].

The natural beauty of the Garut region, such as Mount Cikurai, Guntur, Puteri (Prinsesseberg), Papandayan [9], is admired for its beauty. Tourist attractions such as Cipanas hot springs, Situ Bagendit, Papandayan Crater, and Darajad [9] have earned Garut the nickname Swiss van Java. Rooseboom called it, “Een der schoonste plekjes in de Preanger is Garoet” [One of the most beautiful places in Preanger is Garut] [10]. Many tourists visited Garut in the early 20th century in the small town; there are already three hotels: Hotel van Horck, Papandajan Hotels, and Hotel Villa Dolce [11]. Economic and tourism interests have made Garut in the early 20th century a place of cross-culturalism among several nations.

Garut's natural beauty also attracts the Zendeling Nederlandshe Zendingsvereeniging (NZV). In several reports, Zendeling NZV noted the state of tourism in Garut in the early 20th century. For example, in a statement that was reported about the tourist attraction of Lake Bagendit, which at the beginning of the 20th century had become a tourist attraction with beautiful natural scenery "Haast bedwelmende liefelijkheid" (an almost intoxicating beauty), visitors can sail by using eigenaardige gondels (typical rafts). Accompanied by the sound of music from the angklung players [12]. This study will pay particular attention to the reports of the NZV Zendelings on tourism in Garut in the early 20th century.

2. Literature Review

Tourism continues to be a significant source of economic activity for many developing countries. The challenge for these countries is how best to effectively plan tourism development in overall national economic development planning and policies [13]. Unless we examine the prevailing discourse on internationalization and globalization [14-16] is highly critical of what he calls the dominant conception of globalization in the business literature: 'In this hyper-globalized world, transnational corporations call the shots, labor has to learn to be "realistic" and globally competitive, and the nation-state shrinks to insignificance, both as a unit of analysis and as a political agent.'

In recent decades, this region is seen as an increasingly vital area in the global development of the local economy [17-21]. The notion of regions stimulating economic growth through a mix of corporate networks and cultural/political attributes has dominated much of the social science field of economic development since the early 1980s [22, 23] The complexity of global and economic relations and cultural and environmental elements interact to create local products.

Excellent results; we cannot understand the local context of tourism development unless we can interact with this complexity and better understand how stakeholders (government, industry, communities, tourists) interact within and between multiple scales of economic development. Studies on tourism in Garut have not received much attention. Scholars usually take Garut as a place of research; the topics discussed are related to social movements during the Dutch and Post-Independence periods [24, 25]. Kunto Sofianto, in his book Garoet Kota Intan [7] pays more attention to social, economic, educational, and cultural history. The discussion of tourism did not get his attention. According to Sunjayadi [26], in his book Tourism in the Dutch East Indies (1891-1942), he discusses the tourism organization in Garut, namely Vereeniging Mooi Garoet, on pages 166-167.

In Christian mission activities, what are often called double motives or impure motives, namely (a) imperialist motives "to turn indigenous peoples into obedient subjects of colonial rulers" (b) cultural motives "transfer of culture because missionary culture is considered the superior─ (c) romantic motives, namely motives driven by the desire to go to distant and exotic lands and nations [27]. Johannes Emde is one of the lay workers who spread Christianity around Surabaya. His departure to the archipelago was driven by a romantic motive, namely to prove that a country does not know winter, namely the Indies. This is considered contrary to Genesis 8:22 "As long as the earth exists, there will be sowing and harvest, cold and heat, drought and rain, day and night."[28]. Previous research on tourism and economic development is mutually reinforcing in Taiwan [29].

Nature-related tourism is far from declining everywhere and may still have considerable potential to generate conservation funds and shape people's attitudes towards the environment [30].

Study [31] the uniqueness of a successful Destination management organization is supplier relationship, effective management, strategic planning, organizational focus and drive, appropriate funding, and qualified personnel. What is unique about a thriving destination is its location and accessibility, attractive product and service offerings, quality visitor experience, and community support.

Study [32] cities with significant historical, cultural heritage aim to strengthen their attractiveness to tourists by organizing various complementary activities, such as music festivals, to consolidate and enhance their image as cultural sites and diversify the flow of tourism demand.

Regional historical culture is a unique system formed gradually after a long period of historical accumulation, combining regional cultural characteristics and spiritual connotations. Tourism artistic and creative products are high value-added industries in the tourism industry, and there are a lack of characteristic regional, historical and cultural elements in some designs. Incorporating historical and cultural aspects into artistic and creative product design, combining regional tourism resources with cultural and innovative design, and instilling regional era characteristics for tourism projects, can promote tourism development, cultural and creative design industry, and tourism economy [33].

3. Method

The historical method is a process of critically examining and analyzing authentic and reliable records, documents, and relics of the past and making interpretations and synthesis of these facts into reliable historical stories [34].

The research method that will be used in this study is the Historical Method with observation and secondary data, which consists of four stages: Heuristics, derived from the Greek word heuristic, which means to obtain [35] which is defined as "the stages/activities of finding and collecting sources, information, traces of the past [36]. more briefly, Garraghan defines the heuristic as the search for material on which to work, for sources of information". In writing this article, secondary and primary sources were used which had been published in book form, such as Nederlandsch-Indisch Plakaatboek 1602-1811, Priangan De Preanger-Regentschappen onder het Nederlandsch Bestuur tot 1811, several newspapers published at that time such as Bataviaasch nieuwsblad, De Indische courant, De Preanger-bode, and several magazines and reports published by NZV. Criticism, namely "the stage/activity of critically examining the source, information, trace, which consists of external criticism and internal criticism" [36]. This stage aims to determine the source's authenticity and examine the source's credibility. This criticized source cannot be considered a historical fact [36] because corroboration must be carried out to become a historical fact. Corroboration is "supporting a data from a historical source with other sources (two or more), where there is no relationship of interest between these sources, or the sources are independent" [36] Interpretation, interpreting on historical facts. Historiography is an effort to write research results by paying attention to selection and chronology [36].

4. Analysis and Findings

Java was a money-mining paradise for the Dutch East Indies government. Why not? In 1892 the export activities of Java Island had given the Dutch East Indies a financial income of 283 million guilders [37]. The export value reached 103 million guilders [37]. Agricultural products exported from Java include "sugar, coffee, tobacco, indigo, tea, leather, quinine skin; rice, peanut oil, copra, coconut oil, kapok, and arak" (Posthumus, 1894). Garut contributes to the export of agricultural products. This is very suitable with the natural conditions of Garut, which are ideal for growing crops that have export value, namely Tea, Coffee, and Quinine. A book about entrepreneurship published in 1897 stated, "In Preanger Regency you can find the highlands of Bandung and Garut which are fertile with famous coffee, tea and quinine plantations" [38].

Rapid population growth puts increasing pressure on cities. The revitalization of urban areas is significant to preserve cultural assets. The renewal of inner historical towns has many advantages. First, there is the intrinsic value of historical continuity and immense beauty. Second, historically preserved cities can provide a source of residential identity and pride. Preservation of historical characteristics and restoration and reuse of monumental buildings and other appropriate measures in public spaces and infrastructure can add unique charm and distinction to the historic core, making the city center an added value for businesses to settle in and investments to materialize. Adaptive reuse and cost recovery, Integrated area development, Full commercialization of historic city center, Transfer of development rights, from socialism to real estate development, Modernization of commercial activities, Feedback between the increase in land value and public income, Tourism, Conservation of historical monuments are some revitalizing approaches to the historic inner city area [39].

In 1827 tea trees were planted in the Ciserupan Experimental Garden, Garut, West Java [40, 41]. To develop the tea plant, the Dutch East Indies government brought an expert tea taster from the Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij to Java named J.I.L.L. Jacobson. In 1829 he managed to get many tea plants and successfully planted them near Cisurupan near Garut [40]. Tea seedlings and workers were imported from China in 1832. In the Ciserupan area (see Figure 1), Garut is planted with approximately 50,000 tea seedlings [41]. However, based on the decision of the Commissioner-General on January 14, 1834 No. 41, the number of seedlings to be planted in Ciserupan, Garut quadrupled to no more than 400,000 tea trees by recruiting labor from the Cirebon area [42].

Source: KITLV A227 - Europees huis te Tjisoeroepan

Figure 1. Ciserupan experimental garden

This experiment successfully met the Dutch East Indies government; the Dutch East Indies government expanded the planting area in Cikajang to a place of 34 hectares [41] Outside the Garut area, tea plantations were opened in the Ciumbuluit area [41] Two regions, namely Cikajang and Ciumbuluit, became tea warehouses which in 1838 produced 11,527 pounds of tea (Cikajang 8,950 pounds of tea (see Figure 2) [41].

Source: KITLV A39 - De theeonderneming Tjikadjang bij Garoet

Figure 2. Cikajang tea plantation

In 1837 the Governor-General visited tea plantations in Ciserupan and Cikajang. It was reported that during the visit, "the Governor-General seemed satisfied with the evidence of good order, activity, and administration [43, 44]. However, according to a Posthumus report in 1894, tea cultivation was still less successful than that managed by the British government in India. From Preanger (Sukabumi, Bandung) only able to send 3,365,000 Kg [37].

According to a description made by Holle in 1858, the presence of the Waspada tea company in Cikajang has changed the habits of the residents in Ciela village (see Figure 3). As a result, the inhabitants of this village had less time to cultivate their agricultural land [45]. It seems that this situation has made Holle pay great attention to agricultural development in Garut.

Holle, whose full name is Karl Frederik Holle, is one of the most influential figures in developing an agriculture-based economy in Garut. In Amsterdam, he was born October 9, 1829, and came to Bogor in 1844 [46]. In Garut, he befriended Raden Hadji Mohammed Musa and studied the Sundanese's customs, language, and religion. He wrote the book Mitra noe tani (De vriend van den landman); Handleiding voor de koffiecultuur (coffee culture manual); Handleiding voor de teelt van zoetwatervisch (Guidelines for the cultivation of freshwater fish); Handleiding voor het uitzaaien van padi (Guide to sowing rice); Handleiding voor den aanleg van terrassen (Manual for terrace construction) [47]. His father founded a tea plantation there. Young Holle started his early career as a clerk in the Cianjur government office in 1846 [46], [48]. In 1857, he resigned from the government office and took over the tea company in Cikajang, Garut [46]. The plantation opened by the government has an area of about 200 bau [41].

Source: KITLV A39 - Proeven van de thee op theeonderneming Tjikadjang bij Garoet

Tea tasting at the Tjikadjang tea company near Garoet

Figure 3. The Residents in Ciela Village Cikajang

Holle was not only a successful pioneer in tea, cinchona, and coffee culture), but she also had an attitude of humanity. He was the first to build a mosque and school at the Waspada tea company near Garut. In addition, he was writing school books and instructional articles in Sundanese for folk culture. In 1866 he founded in Bandoeng de Kweekschool voor Inlandsche Onderwijzers [40, 41]. Master the Sundanese language well and have extensive knowledge of agriculture. He tested fertilization using manure on rice plants in the Cileduk (Garut) area (“Berigten van NED. INDIE.,” 1864; “Mededeling omtrent den afloop eener bemestingsproef met 2 bows on 321 vierk roeden padi te Tjiledoek (Garoet)," 1863). In addition to handling the tea company in Cikajang in 1862, he founded the Waspada tea company [47]. He applied to the Dutch East Indies government to work on the land used as a tea plantation. However, this permit was only granted in 1866 [46]. The plantation area opened by Holle is 200 Ha [41] Holle became a very special person for the people around him as Janssen wrote, “.ze hebben een dorp Be alert daar boven gesticht en beschouwen Holle als hun heer nietalleen, maar als hun vorst,..” [they have established a village Alert there and regard Holle not only as their master, but also their prince] [46].

Experiments to plant Quinine in Java also began to be developed in the Bogor Botanical Gardens in 1852 and 1853 and progressed well Holle in Garut, according to a report made by Hanlo, has expanded his quinine plantation to about fifty trees (een 50tal alisaja's), and the results of his trials have obtained good results [49]. In 1912 it was reported that in Garut, a quinine company under the name Soemadra had been established with a total of 100 quinine planted agricultural lands. In 1915 the Soemadra company increased to 147 agrarian lands, and in Garut, two more companies were added, namely the Rahajoe company with 150 agricultural lands and the Tjikembar company with 300 agricultural lands.

Coffee plants are also cultivated in Garut. When Van Maurik visited Bandung in 1897, Holle offered to stop him at his house in Garut, and one of the things that attracted Van Maurik was the coffee. Van Maurik stated, "In Bandung, I was delighted to meet Pak H. from Garut, who suggested that I spend a few days at his residence, in the southern part of the Preanger Regency, and the actual coffee district [50]. Towards the end of the 19th century, tea, Quinine, and coffee export commodities developed well in Bandung and Garut. The boss, on his visit to Java, stated,

Most of the island of Java is upland. In the east rise high, solitary mountains or mountain groups. The West, however, has a more cohesive mountainous landscape. In Preanger Regency, you can find the fertile and healthy highlands of Bandung and Garut with famous coffee, tea, and quinine plantations [38].

Garut's natural conditions, which are very suitable for agricultural-based economic development, have attracted the hearts of entrepreneurs to open plantations in this place. As the saying goes, where there is sugar, there are ants; Garut's natural potential has made several Europeans, Chinese, Arabs come to settle in this area. The population of Limbangan Regency, Negri District (Garut), based on the 1870 statistics book in 1845, was 4068, and in 1867, it was 6984 (Bleeker, 1870). Of the 6984, there were 14 Europeans, 6 Chinese, 36 other Easterners, and 6928 indigenous people. Arabs settled in Garut around 1885. In the mid-19th century, Garut became known to foreigners; Garut has become an area not isolated from the outside world. Garut's interaction with the outside world became more intense when the railroad was built in 1889.

Source: (Staatsspoor en Tramwegen in nederlandsch Indie 1875 6 April 1925 Voeke Warning from Staatsspoor en Tramwegen in the Dutch East Indies 1875-1925, 1925)

Figure 4. Cibatu (Tjibatoe) to Garut (Garoet) Branch Railroad 1899

Along with the progress of agriculture in Garut, which also contributed to economic development at that time. Seeing this potential, the Dutch East Indies government built a railway line to Garut. At the end of 1886, based on a policy assessment related to the railways in Java, the decision was made to build the Cicalengka-Cilacap railway line with a branch at Cibatu station to Garut (20 Km long) as outlined in the Explanatory Note on the Indies using the budget for the 1887 service year (see Figure 4). The decision to build a railway line from Cicalengka to Garut is stated in the law and the Indisch Staatsblad Wet. December 24, 1886. Sb. 254. If the construction of this railroad has been completed, it is estimated that the distance traveled by tourists from Batavia to Garut is eleven hours or less.

On August 14, 1889, the Cicalengka-Garut line was opened to the public Bemmelen and Hooyer stated, "The railway journey from Tjitjalengka to Garoet is highly interested".

Source: Sukamto Document April 25, 2021

Figure 5. Garut train station

This route is then continued to the tea plantations in Cikajang. Based on a law dated March 18, 1921 (Stb. Ind. No. 204), the Dutch East Indies government ordered the construction of a railway line from Garut-Cikajang, Banjaran-Pengalengan, and worked on that year had also begun. But this path is currently not working anymore (see Figure 6).

Source: Sukamto Document April 25, 2021

Figure 6. Remains of cikajang railway station building

The opening of this railway line has certainly facilitated access to Garut and made it a cross-cultural city (see Figure 5). Linderborn, in his book De Zending op West Java, describes that at the beginning of the 20th century, in general, transportation facilities in Java had developed well. A train journey from Bandung to Garut and Tasikmalaya can be reached in three hours [12] The state of transportation facilities in the city of Garut at this time is also good; around the square, the roads are well maintained and very good for motorized vehicles to go to all corners of Garut [10].

The economic development in Garut, which made many foreigners live in this region, and the progress of transportation built by the Dutch East Indies government had opened the door for tourism development in Garut. Furthermore, the natural beauty of Garut has invited many tourists at that time to visit this area. This tourist visit has grown the new business in the Garut area, namely the construction of various tourism facilities such as hotels, tourism agents, and books containing tourism information in Garut. Below will be discussed the development of tourism in Garut in the 19th century.

Before the railway branching was built from Cibatu Station to Garut in 1889, a trip to Garut could only be reached by train, horse, and foot [26]. But the road to Garut does not seem boring because, along the way, there are almost uninterrupted views through beautiful mountains. Using a cart drawn by buffalo and passing through the fast-flowing Cimanuk river, a magnificent bamboo bridge has been built especially for pedestrians. In addition, there are always rafts ready to carry carts and horses.

It can be said that before 1889 the trip to Garut was a reasonably dangerous route. However, this route does not seem to dampen the guts of visitors who want to see the natural beauty of Garut. The construction of a railway line to Garut in 1889 has increased tourism in this area. Several tourists describe the beauty of traveling by train to Garut; for example, De-Lilah, on his way from Cibatu station to Garut, expressed his admiration, "Once again I saw the most beautiful scenery and mountains so close that people could almost catch them". Van Bammelen and Hooyer describe the trip to Garut as follows:

Past the stopping-place Tjimanoek, we cross a bridge 90 m long across the foaming and roaring river of that name. Past the station Rantja-Batoe, we also see the Goentoer in the West, the active volcano Papandajan (2600 m high), with its white crater walls in the southwest, the Galoenggoeng (2200 m) in the east. The elegant peak of the Tjikorai (2813 m) in the southeast. Travel from the city of Garut to tourist attractions using means of transportation such as carts, horses, and stretchers. One of the attractions for tourists visiting Garut is its natural beauty. For Europeans, Garut is one of the exotic tourist attractions. A place of relaxation surrounded by several beautiful mountains such as Mount Guntur, Papandayan, Cikurai, Galunggung, and Talaga Bodas. The natural beauty of Garut is recognized by travelers and people who have visited the region since the mid-19th century. In 1837 the people who accompanied the Governor-General's trip to Garut stated.

On a mountain near Garut, we visited the Telaga-Bodas crater (White Crater); there is an impressive crater with sulfur particles. A more beautiful show is? The nature found in this area, especially our traveling companions, greatly admired its beauty [44].

Buddingh, during his visit to Garut in 1859, also commented that Garut is a very charming place. From Garut, we rode horses to Ciserupan, where we again saw a coffee factory and extensive coffee plantation, and further to the Cikajang highlands, where one could see a private tea garden with its own tea factory. The road to these places and their surroundings is bumpy and charming, with an extraordinarily cool climate, requiring the warmth of a burning stove in the evening and the morning.

In the eyes of Buijs, Garut has its uniqueness compared to Bandung and Cianjur. He stated that "But the environment around Garut is, I must say, unique. Fire-breathing mountains appeared on three sides, next to the most fertile rice fields, the most beautiful villages. Van Maurik towards the end of the 19th century, precisely in 1897, during his visit to Garut with three Batavian women (Maurik called them brave tourists), Maurik when on his way home on his visit to Papandayan, he said about the natural beauty around Papandayan, - Let's go back? Said one of the women—and without protest, we followed when we suddenly turned around. Indescribably a contrasting scene, which suddenly appeared by the eye, we saw the scene was dumbfounded when we came back. Spreading incredible beauty in the distance, far at our feet, a valley of rich green - behind us bubbles of hellish cauldrons, steam, seepage, and tantrums - in front of us, the most luxurious and magnificent nature of the Dutch East Indies spread. And far along the horizon, in a wide circle, the blue mountains, rising to their peaks into the clear sky, calm and peaceful, surround Preanger like a group of calm and protective cronies.

Dé-Lilah, during his visits to Garut, repeatedly expressed his admiration for the natural beauty of Garut. Since the beginning of his arrival, even while on his way, he has begun to praise the beauty of Garut by writing, "Behind the rice fields there is another row of hills, where the beautiful Bagendit lake is; beyond is the beautiful valley of Lèlès, which I passed yesterday, and which I greatly admire" Compared with Preanger (perhaps he meant Bandung), Dé-Lilah stated, "Garut exceeded my expectations. If Preanger is already very beautiful, there is no doubt about Garut. Similarly, when compared to Sukabumi, he stated, "Sukabumi has a better and more even climate, while in Garut the wind can be powerful so that the trees sway, the houses creak, and the wind howls in the cypresses, but nature in Garut is excellent and beautiful".

Garut's natural beauty was also attractive to the missionaries of Nederlandshe Zendingsvereeniging (NZV). In several reports, the NZV missionaries noted the state of tourism in Garut in the early 20th century. For example, in a statement that was reported about the tourist attraction of Lake Bagendit, which at the beginning of the 20th century had become a tourist attraction with beautiful natural scenery "haast bedwelmende liefelijkheid" (an almost intoxicating beauty), visitors can sail by using eigenaardige gondels (typical rafts). Accompanied by the sound of music from angklung players [12].

The natural beauty of the Garut region, such as Mount Cikurai, Guntur, Puteri (Prinsesseberg), Papandayan [9], is admired for its beauty. Tourist attractions such as Cipanas hot springs, Situ Bagendit, Papandayan Crater, and Darajad [9] have earned Garut the nickname Swiss van Java. Daum, in the article on Sitoe Bagendit stated,

Indien de Preanger eenmaal gelijk men het schoone gewest nu reeds, tamelijk voorbarig, genoemd heeft een Indisch Zwitserland wordt, d.w.z. een lievelingsoord der toeristen, and zal Garoet en zijn omtrek voor dezen ongetwijfeld een der great attraction's zijn

Suppose Preanger, as the beautiful region has been called, is somewhat prematurely. In that case, it becomes Swiss India, d.w.z. a favorite place for tourists, then Garut and its surroundings will undoubtedly be one of their attractions. Daum's praise and admiration for the natural beauty of Garut are expressed in his writings as follows, "I have had the privilege of traveling and seeing many things in the Dutch East Indies, but have not found a region where so many beautiful and interesting natural sights can be found in such a short time."

Rooseboom called it, “Een der schoonste plekjes in de Preanger is Garoet” [One of the most beautiful places in Preanger is Garut] However, because active mountains surround Garut with craters ready to spit out magma, Rooseboom calls it "het Paradijs aan den rand der hel" [heaven on the edge of hell. Several tourist destinations in Garut that have become famous and have become a favorite of tourists since the mid-19th century are Situ Bagendit, Papandayan, Cipanas, and Telaga Bodas. De-Lilah added that one place that impressed him was Cangkuang Lake. Mary Buys, in her book Batavia, Buitenzorg en de Preanger made notes of the trips that need to be visited in Garut, namely Situ Bagendit, Cipanas, Bodas Lake, and Papandayan. Here will be discussed some of the favorite tourist destinations in Garut since the 19th century.

Situ Bagendit is currently included in the administrative area of Bagendit Village, Banyuresmi District, Garut Regency, West Java. During the Dutch East Indies period, it was mentioned that it was included in the Tarogong area. This tourist spot is straightforward to reach from Garut by using carriage transportation or a giant train readily available for rent in Garut Hotel Vogel also provided a horse-drawn carriage with strong horses even on the most challenging and longest trails. Daum, in his article, states that "Lake Bagendit, a small beautiful lake in the Tarogong Section, which can be reached in an hour by a horse belonging to the Vogel Inn". From Hotel Vogel, you have to cross the Cimanuk river bridge. The many routes to Situ Bagendit are described by Buys as follows,We departed over a sturdy bridge over the Cimanuk river at seven o'clock in the morning through a neat section of Tarogong. We turned right and followed a well-maintained back road leading to a ridge behind a small hidden lake. The street was full of carts and wagons, with horsemen and pedestrians, men, women, and children.

At first, I was afraid that I wouldn't be able to come on Wednesday either; but luckily, the fever wasn't too bad, so I was feeling very well again on Tuesday. So we left the house very early on that Wednesday. The children all came along and even brought some acquaintances with them. Keizer's mother and I sat down with the youngest child, the others following us. Then, we crossed the large bridge built over Tji-manuk and drove on the road to Trogong, the hotbed of fanaticism, to continue our journey to Bagendit. The road is beautiful, like everywhere in Java, and to our right and left; we have stunning views of the mountains. Goentoer in particular, is visible from here. One can almost count black grooves called lava flows. According to some European tourists, Situ Bagendit is not exhaustive, but the scenery is stunning. Daum stated, "Situ Bagendit is a small lake whose waters sparkle and sparkle in the bright sunlight, beautifully framed by mountains, graceful hills, with lush greenery all around" (see Figures 7 and 8) The same thing was stated by Buys, "This elegant little lake (Situ in Sundanese means pond and lake), with its magnificent surroundings. To enjoy the beauty of Situ Bagendit, you can rent a raft made of bamboo. The number of lotus flowers in the middle of the lake gives its beauty. From the middle of the lake, you can see Mount Guntur, Haroman, Tangkuban Perahu Kecil, Seda-Keling, Galoenggoeng, Kratjak, Tjikorai, and Papandayan. A canoe race was held on this lake on Eid al-Fitr.

Van Maurik was very impressed by the beauty of Situ Bagendit with a dark blue color and calm surrounded by high mountains as if the natural beauty of Tyrol in Italy was transferred to Preanger (meaning Garut) He even stated that patients looking for a cure could be calmed in Garut so that they could forget their illness [24]. Linderborn, director of NZV, stated.

Source: Sukamto Document April 25, 2021

Figure 7. Sitoe Bagendit

Source: Sukamto Document April 25, 2021

Figure 8. Situ Bagendit

Here there is also Bagendit lake. At the beginning of the 20th century had become a tourist attraction with natural scenery whose beauty can be intoxicating; visitors can sail using eigenaardige gondolas (typical rafts) accompanied by the sound of music from angklung players [12]. Cipanas is located near the city of Garut, about 6 km, which is in the administrative area of Tarogong Kaler District, Garut Regency. Cipanas, ci in Sundanese, means river, while hot because it is a hot spring. The journey to Cipanas passes through fish ponds developed by the residents. Cultivated fish include gourami, carp, tilapia, and cork fish. Five hot springs originate from Mount Guntur's slopes, which produce fifteen liters of water per second with varying temperatures from the lowest 38.9° Celsius to the highest 41.9° Celsius.

At the end of the 19th century, this tourist spot had not been appropriately managed; at the initiative of the residents of Tarogong, six bathrooms were made from bamboo. In this tourist spot, the difference in social class can also be seen from the bathrooms made separate between the natives, Chinese, and Europeans. In addition, there is a large bathroom provided for people suffering from skin diseases and other unclean diseases. According to local beliefs, this hot spring is beneficial for people with rheumatic diseases. The rate charged for those affected by the disease is one gobang (2.5 cents). For natives and Chinese, it is 5 cents, while for Europeans, it is 10 cents. If tourists want to stay overnight, there is a guesthouse, but they must bring their bed and food.

From Cipanas, tourists continue climbing to the top of Guntur, but usually, they only reach the mountain's slopes to see the larvae of the former eruption. Near Cipanas, there is a lower mountain called Prinsen or Prinsessenberg (Goenoeng Poetri), which is relatively easy to climb, and from there, you can see a beautiful, comprehensive view.

Papandayan is one of the tourist destinations located in the administrative area of Kec. Cisrupan, Garut Regency, West Java. Papandayan is a volcanic crater like Tangkuban Perahu, which erupted in 1772 and buried 40 villages and three thousand people [12] This tourist destination has been known to tourists since the mid-19th century. Although the route to Papandayan is still hazardous, it does not dampen the guts for tourists to visit this place. Buijs describes the journey to Papandayan as follows, "the road is slippery and often very steep, due to the many creeks and mountain streams that cross many times" [12] The activity of the Papandayan crater is described by Buijs as the sound of a steam engine starting to be heard from a distance [12] Rietstap states, "In many places, steam rises from the ground with such force that rather large stones dance in it". The same thing was expressed by Van Maurik, "Closed on three sides by cliffs as high as the sky; a vast crater floor stretches out before our feet. Hissing and bubbling, as if emerging from a giant steam boiler, sulfur boils, and steam gushes from fumaroles".Rietstap described Papandayan's situation when visited: While climbing Papandayan, we came across a giant solfatara, enclosed between perpendicular rock walls several hundred feet high. Against the background, a high fence of shards of rock stretched straight out, and when one climbed it, one would see all these sights on a larger scale on the other sides. According to Van Maurik, in such a situation on a night, Papandayan must resemble a piece of hell described by Dante. In 1875, the Java-bode newspaper reported it: Nieuws, handels-en advertentieblad voor Nederlandsch-Indie the Governor-General after visiting the Tangkuban Perahu volcano in Bandung, then continued his journey to Garut, one of the places visited by the Garut Papandajan Volcano. In his book, Batavia, Buitenzorg, Buys wrote en de Preanger the route to Papandayan: Traveling to Papandayan at that time was usually from Garut by horse-drawn carriage to Cisurupan and first ordered horses, stretchers, and coolies (indigenous people who would help accompany them). trips) provided at Cisurupan by an enterprising person at a reasonable price. Overnight in Cisurupan should leave early in the morning to Papandayan . After a leisurely walk for one and a half to two hours, you will arrive at a road with a steep height and begin to enter the crater. According to Dé-Lilah, the first trip to Papandayan did not find such a beautiful and majestic natural scenery as in Tangkuban Perahu but had to pass through dense forests that never penetrated the sun (see Figures 9 and 10).

Source: Sukamto Document April 25, 2021

Figure 9. Papandayan

Source: Sukamto Document April 25, 2021

Figure 10. Papandayan

On the way home, tourists will witness the beautiful view of the Garut valley and especially enjoy this in all its splendor. European tourists recognize the beauty of Papandayan. Van Maurik stated, "Anyone who does not find Papandajan interesting or does not find the trip there beautiful and pleasant, is someone who does not feel or feel the beauty of nature" Dé- Lilah who went alone without being accompanied by other Europeans accompanied by only a guide stated that, "My first destination was to Papandayan, where I went alone to climb this most interesting mountain, which certainly has the most interesting crater of all the volcanoes in Preanger".

Telaga Bodas is a Sundanese word that means white lake. So named the white lake because the color of the water is milky white. This lake is now located in the administrative area of Sukamenak Village, Wanaraja District, Garut Regency, West Java. The distance from Garut to Telaga Bodas is a bit far, about 28 Km.

Bodas Lake has been known since before the mid-19th century. In his book Landen zeetogten in Nederland's Indië Johannes, Olivier states that Telaga-Bodas is an active volcano that forms a crater with boiling water and hot sulfur vapor rising from the hole with an indescribable sound. The lake is oval and has a diameter of 1200 to 1500 feet. The water looks white. Around the lake are large trees that have burned black due to past destructive eruptions. On the east side were found many carcasses of animals thought to have been from drinking this water or inhaling this sulfur vapor. In 1837 Anslijn also reported a similar thing about Telaga Bodas as follows:

A volcano on the island of Java, at the top of which is found a strange lake of sulfur. This mountain contains several boiling springs and springs sulfur and water vapor from the holes, which is pushed upward with an indescribable thud and expelled with the extraordinary power of the narrow hole. But, at the same time, a large amount of sulfur gleamed, overflowing in torrents.

On the east side of Bodas Lake, some of the ground has collapsed. Here comes acidic water accompanied by sulfur vapors, which seems more dangerous to live than anywhere else, for there are always many animals in this place who drink this water or die by the smoke.

Bodas Lake in the mid-19th century has become one of the recommended tourist destinations to visit. In the Bredasche courant, it was written that Telaga-Bodas (white lake) is a beautiful crater impregnated by sulfur particles in the Garut region which is worthy of a visit. The Java-bode newspaper also wrote, "It is better if you come by train from Bandung, followed by a trip to Garut, Papandayan, and Mount Telaga Bodas". In the Bataviaasch nieuwsblad newspaper, it was stated that the beauty of Telaga Bodas will be visible when the sun shines brightly, the lake water will appear with subtle shades of sea green, surrounded by towering forests along the side of the mountain, making the scenery look so gorgeous. The author finally concludes his description of Lake Bodas by stating, "At least I have never seen anything comparable to the view of Lake Bodas." The beauty of Bodas Lake is also described by Dé-Lilah as follows, the sun is shining on the lake completely, and now I see beautiful colors, as visitors often tell me. I also saw streaks of blood-red on the water, which changed to pink, orange, and yellow, and then on the water blue, purple, green, in short, it was a charming sight.

The journey to Telaga Bodas from Garut is very far away, and the route is not easy, even. You have to pass through dangerous steep slopes, but the scenery on the way is gorgeous. Travel routes at that time started from the Wanareja sub-district office by ordering a horse or stretcher. This office information on rates for renting horses, guides, stretchers, and porters to travel to Telaga Bodas can be obtained. The price is not too high. Buys stated, "Prices here are also very moderate. Five guilders were paid for a man's horse, two and a half guilders for a servant horse, five guilders for a makeshift seat, and four porters. If using a horse, travel time is about two and a half hours Tourists will enjoy the natural beauty of coffee plantations during the trip to Telaga Bodas.

The number of tourists who visited Garut in the early 20th century in this small town already has three hotels, namely Hotel van Horck, Hotel Papandajan, Hotel Villa Dolce, and Hotel Vogel [11] (see Figure 11).

The facilities provided are also of very high quality; this can be seen in the statement of van Bemmelen and Hooyer, "There is an excellent hotel owned by Mr. van Horck with a bathroom with hot and cold water" with a good menu of food. Moreover, hotel Van Horck is close to the train station [9].

Figure 11. Map of Garut 1930

Source: Sukamto Document April 25, 2021

Figure 12. Garut Regent's House

Source: Sukamto Document April 25, 2021

Figure 13. Babancong Located in front of the Garut Regent's House

Economic development and tourism have made Garut in the second half of the 19th century a cross-cultural place among several nations. Some famous people who visited Garut, for example, the King of Siam Chulalongkorn in 1896, enjoyed angklung music, puppet and gamelan performances at the Duke's residence (see Figures 12 and 13) and enjoyed a ronggeng performance near the guesthouse in Cisurupan [26]. In 1927 was Charlie Chaplin [50]; in 1928, King Leopold and his consorts Astrid, Renate Muller, and Hans Albers [7]. The importance of economics and tourism has made Garut in the early 20th century a place of cross-culturalism among several nations.

5. Conclusions

Currently, the tourism and hospitality sector are the leading sector of the world economy. This improves the balance of payments as well as income and job creation. Based on the results of the research review, it can be concluded that Garut made many foreigners live in this area, and the progress of transportation built by the Dutch East Indies government had opened the door for tourism development in Garut. In addition, the natural beauty of Garut has invited many tourists at that time to visit this area. This tourist visit has grown the new business in the Garut area, namely the construction of various tourism facilities such as hotels, tourism agents, and books containing tourism information in Garut. Economic development and tourism have made Garut in the second half of the 19th century a cross-cultural place among several nations. Some famous people who visited Garut. The importance of economics and tourism has made Garut in the early 20th century a place of cross-culturalism among several nations. The complexity of global and economic relations and cultural and environmental elements interact to create local products.


The author would like to thank LPPM Pelita Harapan University for providing the opportunity to conduct this research (No. P 001-MPar/II/2021).


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