CH4, CO2 and SO2 Emissions from the Hulene Dump, Municipality of Maputo

CH4, CO2 and SO2 Emissions from the Hulene Dump, Municipality of Maputo

Amad H. A. Gani Farisse J. Chirindja António G. J. Dias António A. R. Monjane

Universidade Pedagógica de Maputo, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics – Moçambique

Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology – Moçambique

University of Porto, Faculty of Science, Department of Geosciences, Environment and Spatial Planning

Available online: 
| Citation

© 2022 IIETA. This article is published by IIETA and is licensed under the CC BY 4.0 license (



The objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of CH4, CO2 and SO2 that is currently emitted by the Hulene dump into the atmosphere. The work consisted in measuring these three gases using an S360 multigasometer that simultaneously measures eight gases. Measurements were made in April, May, June, July, August and September, which are considered the dry season in Maputo city. Measurements were made at 18 points of gas release pipes installed by the Municipality of Maputo. Point P10, presents the highest value of 2.56 and 2.59 (% vol of CH4), respectively in the months of April and May. Point P14 had the highest value of 2.95 (% vol of CH4) in April and 2.28 (% vol of CH4) in May. Point P15 presented values of 2.78 and 2.72 (% vol of CH4), respectively in the months of August and September.

Points P10, P14 and P15 showed higher values of CH4 in April, May, August and September. Points P9 to P13 showed marked variations of CO2 in the months of July, August and September. Point P10 presented the highest value of 2.56 and 2.59 (ppm of CO2), respectively in the months of April and May. Point P14 showed the highest value of 2.95 (ppm CO2) in April and 2.28 (ppm CO2) in May. Point P15 presented the highest value of 5,000 ppm of CO2 in August and September. In April, points P1 to P6 showed values above 100 ppm of SO2 and dropped drastically from point P7 to 3 ppm of SO2. In April, P6 reached 137 ppm of SO2. In August and September, the values gradually increased, reaching 178 ppm of SO2 at point P18.


biogas, emission, greenhouse effect


[1] Spokas, K., Bogner, J., Chanton, J.P., Morcet, M., Aran, C., Graff, C., Golvan, Y.M.L., Hebe, I., Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: what is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems? Waste Management, 26(5), p. 516-525, 2006.

[2] Hrad, M., Huber-Humer, M., Wimmer, B., Reichenauer, T.G., Design of top covers supporting aerobic in situ stabilization of old landfills – an experimental simulation in lysimeters. Waste Management, 32(12), p. 2324-2335, 2012.

[3] Aronica, S., Bonanno, A., Piazza, V., Pignato, L., Trapani, S., Estimation of biogas produced by the landfill of Palermo, applying a Gaussian model. Waste Management, 29(1), p. 233-239, 2009.

[4] Bogner, J., Pipatti, R., Hashimoto, S., Diaz, C., Mareckova, K., Diaz, L., Kjeldsen, P., Monni, S., Faaij, A., Sutamihardja, R.T.M., Gregory, R., Mitigation of global greenhouse gas emissions from waste: conclusions and strategies from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. Working Group III (Mitigation). Waste Management Research, 26, p. 11-32, 2008.

[5] Gani, A., Monjane, A., Guerner Dias, A., Impact of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Change in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Generation in Maputo. WIT Transaction on Ecology and Environment, 247. p.15-24, 2020. UK.

[6] Decree No. 94/2014. Regulation on Municipal Waste Management. Maputo, 31 Dec 2014.

[7] Mclennan, D., Aterros Sanitários. Revista JB Ecológico. Rio de Janeiro: jornal do Brasil, 2(17), 2003.

[8] Korhonen, M. R., Dahlbo H., Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Recycling Plastics and Textiles into Products. Finnish Environment Institute/Research Department. 62p, 2007. Available at: Accessed: May 2010.

[9] CMCM/JICA Projecto Piloto para a Melhoria da Segurança na Lixeira de Hulene. Município de Maputo, 2020.

[10] Resolution No. 86/AM/2008. Posture of Cleaning of Solid Municipal Waste in the Municipality of Maputo. Maputo, 22 May 2006.

[11] Gani, A., Monjane, A., Guerner Dias, A., Olaide, A., Improving the Attitude and Reation Towards Municipal Solid Waste Management in Mozambique. WIT Transaction on Ecology and Environment, 247, p 47-56, 2020. UK.

[12] Maputo, C.M.C., Solid Waste Management Master Plan (SWMMP). Maputo, Available on: mozambique.pd, 2008.