Dynamic and Static Wettability of Advanced Materials Used in Aeronautical Applications

Dynamic and Static Wettability of Advanced Materials Used in Aeronautical Applications

Omid Gohardani David W. Hammond

Department of Power and Propulsion, Cranfi eld University, Bedford, UK

| |
| | Citation



The search for icephobic external surface materials in aircraf ticing applications has been ongoing since the early days of aviation. Given the recognized superlative properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) across many different disciplines, the implementation of CNTs in polymer matrix composites has sparked a great interest in their mechanical/electrical properties and wetting character, in addition to their suitability for aircraft icing applications. Within this framework, a new developed methodology capable of determining the nature of wettability, consequent to CNT implementation is desired. Thus, this article presents a novel methodology – henceforth referred to as the dynamic and static wettability scheme for advanced materials – which examines the wettability of materials reinforced with CNTs, for potential utilization within the aerospace industry. The described methodology herein can be employed in order to numerically examine empirically acquired results with an extended possibility to include alternative materials outside the scope of the considered ones. Results are shown for a decision matrix that discriminates between hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces based on their static and dynamic wettability properties. Moreover, idealized wetting character representations of the different considered aerospace materials are presented.


aerospace materials, aircraft icing, carbon nanotube wettability, corona splashing measurement tool, dynamic and static wettability scheme for advanced materials, fluid structures, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, liquid water concentration


[1] Shalin, R.E., Polymer Matrix Composites. Springer, p. 440, 1995. ISBN 0412613301. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0515-6

[2] Gohardani, O., The infl uence of erosion and wear on the accretion and adhesion of ice for nano reinforced polymeric composites used in aeronautics. Ph.D. Thesis, Cranfi eld University, United Kingdom, 2011.

[3] Gohardani, O., Impact of erosion testing aspects on current and future fl ight conditions. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 47(4), Elsevier, pp. 280–303, 2011. doi:10.1016/j.paerosci.2011.04.001.

[4] Gohardani, O., Williamson, D.M. & Hammond, D.W., Multiple liquid impacts on polymeric matrix composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes. Wear, 294–295, pp. 336–346, 2012. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2012.07.007. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2012.07.007

[5] Gohardani O. & Hammond, D.W., Droplet interaction and dynamic wettability of advanced materials used in aeronautics. Presented at the 6th Subrata Chakrabarti International Conference on Fluid Structure Interaction, Fluid Structure Interaction May 9–11, 2011, Orlando, Florida, U.S.A.

[6] Gohardani, A.S., Doulgeris, G. & Singh, R., Challenges of future aircraft propulsion: a review of distributed propulsion technology and its potential application for the all electric commercial aircraft. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 47(5), Elsevier, pp. 369–391, 2011. doi:10.1016/j.paerosci.2010.09.001. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paerosci.2010.09.001

[7] Gohardani, A.S., A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 2012. doi:10.1016/j.paerosci.2012.08.001.

[8] Gohardani A.S. & Gohardani O. Ceramic engine considerations for future aerospace propulsion. Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 84(2), pp. 75–86, 2012. doi:10.1108/00022661211207884. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00022661211207884

[9] Gohardani, O. & Hammond, D.W., Droplet interaction and dynamic wettability of advanced materials used in aeronautics. Advances in Fluid Mechanics IX, WIT Transactions on Engineering Sciences. ISBN 978-1-84564-600-4, pp. 175–185, 2012.

[10] Hammond, D.W., Luxford, G. & Ivey P., The Cranfi eld University Icing Tunnel. In: 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit. 6–9 Jan 2003, Reno, U.S.A.

[11] Young, T., An essay on the cohesion of fl uids. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society London, 95, pp. 65–87, 1805. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1805.0005

[12] Tadmor, R., Line energy and the relation between advancing, receding, and young contact angles. Langmuir, 20(18), pp. 7659 –7664, 2004. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la049410h

[13] Ide, R.F., Comparison of Liquid Water Content measurement techniques in an icing wind tunnel. NASA/TM-1999-209643, 1999.

[14] Rein, M., Phenomena of liquid drop impact on solid and liquid surfaces. Fluid Dynamics Research, 12(2), pp. 61–93, 1993. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-5983(93)90106-K

[15] Gonzalez, R.C., Woods, R.E. & Eddins, S.L., Digital Image Processing Using MATLAB, 2nd edn., Gatesmark Publishing, 2009. ISBN 9780982085400.

[16] Schlichting, H. & Gersten, K., Boundary-Layer Theory. Springer, 2000. ISBN 3-540-66270-7.

[17] Pasandideh-Fard, M., Qiao, Y.M., Chandra, S. & Mostaghimi, J., Capillary effects during droplet impact on a solid surface. Physics of Fluids, 8(3), pp. 650–659, 1996. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.868850

[18] Aziz, S.D. & Chandra, S., Impact, recoil and splashing of molten metal droplets. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 2841–2857, 2000. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0017-9310(99)00350-6

[19] Allen, R.F. The role of surface tension in splashing. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 51, pp. 350–351, 1975. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(75)90126-5

[20] Gohardani, O., Experimental investigation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability using a paramagnetic liquid combination. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Arizona, U.S.A., 2008.

[21] Gohardani, O., Oemke, R. & Jacobs, J.W., PLIF fl ow visualization of magnetically stabilized Rayleigh-Taylor instability. American Physical Society, 59th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, November 19–21, 2006, Tampa Bay, Florida, U.S.A.

[22] Gohardani, O., Oemke, R. & Jacobs, J.W., Experimental study of Rayleigh-Taylor Instability utilizing a paramagnetic liquid combination. American Physical Society, 60th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics, November 18–20, 2007. Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A.

[23] Gohardani, O. & Jacobs, J.W. Experimental investigation of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability using a paramagnetic liquid combination. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing (IWPCTM), July 13–18, 2008, Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.

[24] Gohardani, O., The Exploration of Icephobic Materials and Their Future Prospects in Aircraft Icing Applications. J Aeronaut Aerospace Eng, 1, p. e116, 2012. doi:10.4172/2168-9792.1000e116.