The use of the LMS is expanding and progressing in accordance with the digital learning procedure that has been going on for more than a year. We as teachers face the problem of Arabic learning platform. Amidst the various LMS available, the Padlet platform provides the most advantage, hence an engaging, expressive, and unique learning approach. This study illustrates that this Padlet is very suitable for use in LMS Arabic Language Learning in Higher Education because the Padlet has Complete Features, starting from preparation, the learning process to evaluation, everything is in the Padlet which is easily accessible so that learning is planned and the results are maximized.
e-learning, Padlet, LMS, Arabic language teaching
As per Law number 20 of 2003, education has a significant role in the growth of one's personality by creating capacity in oneself as in religious spirituality, consciousness, attitude, knowledge, moral strength, and skills required to survive in society with deliberate and planned efforts. Learning is an educational activity related to education involving students and teachers in order to change behavioural patterns albeit attitudes, expertise, knowledge, and so forth, so that the learning process is convenient and helps students learn well in line with the goals to be studied [1, 2].
The use of digital technology in learning certainly requires teachers to have digital literacy skills and technological literacy. The capacity to understand, evaluate, and draw thoughtful conclusive results on data and information received is referred to as digital literacy. Technological literacy is the capacity to grasp ways equipment function, enabling technologies, and technology-based work to achieve the best results. This literacy ability is a capital for teachers to be able to present learning that is more varied, not monotonous, which only relies on one learning method. By using a variety of media, students will be interested and enthusiastic in participating in learning . Fun learning will generate student motivation so that it can affect student learning outcomes [4-6].
Learning media has a critical influence in the achievement of learning outcomes. Using learning media will stimulate classroom participation and make it simpler for learners to grasp the topic being learned. It is critical to consider aspects like as accessibility, price, innovation, strategic restructuring, originality, and quickness while picking media [7, 8].
The learning system that was previously carried out face-to-face directly, with the current pandemic must be done remotely (online) or by using an online system. Learning using this online system is a new transformation in educational technology that is used to plan a more directed and interactive learning system. This online learning system is also a temporary government effort to reduce and minimize the appearance of crowds, both at school and on campus [9, 10].
By using this online learning, it also utilizes several learning methods, one of which is by using complete e-learning facilities. This e-learning facility is provided by special software or what is called a Learning Management System (LMS) [11-13].
Currently, there are many LMS that are used to support various educational institutions in their learning systems. LMS scattered in the world there are paid or unpaid. From each developer there is an LMS that is purely independent, there is also one that is dependent on other applications. There are also LMS that are purely open source, some have been commercialized by various vendors [14, 15].
At this time, teachers must be selective and creative in choosing learning media that can be used online, especially in learning Arabic. Learning Arabic is still not encouraging. Both in universities, course institutions, madrasas, including schools. Except for pesantren, it is seen as more successful even though here and there is still receiving criticism, because it still has shortcomings that have yet to be solved. In modern or semi-modern Islamic boarding schools only make students able to speak Arabic but are weak in Arabic grammar, another problem is often the Arabic language produced is Arabic with an Indonesian taste. In traditional Islamic boarding schools, they are good at grammar, but active Arabic is very weak and does not become a concern at all, even though language is a communication tool and not just grammatical rules that must be followed one hundred percent, especially in the context of spoken language .
Based on this, interactive media is needed that can facilitate students to interact in online classes to practice language skills. By utilizing technology, the learning process can run well where you can still follow the learning even though you are limited. One of the media that can be used by teachers in learning Arabic to develop skills in Arabic is to use the Padlet application.
Padlet is an online learning application which is simply often called an online whiteboard or commonly known as an online synchronous platform, Padlet can be used on smartphones, tablets, laptops or computers. Through the Padlet application, it can provide a forum for collaborative learning media between teachers and students in participating simultaneously, both of them can send and share ideas and thoughts in the form of videos, images or writing [17-19].
The Padlet application has met international education application standards called The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), the institution surveys and analyzes the feasibility of a learning media. The institution also divides their standardization into various fields of Education. Among other things, eligibility for students, for teachers, for teacher leaders, for trainers, and for computer knowledge education [20, 21]. The Padlet application was chosen because this application is available in a free version , besides that this application can be accessed via Google, so there is no need to download this application to be able to use it.
Padlet is a free social networking site where people can debate or discuss specific topics and easily use multimedia elements to perfect their words [23, 24]. Based on the description above, this paper will try to offer the concept of learning Arabic by using the Padlet Platform as a Learning Management System (LMS) to further optimize the potential of Arabic language skills at the university level.
2.1 Arabic learning
In substance learning, a teacher does ideally so that the learners perform well in educational processes. This means that learning is the teacher's endeavor to provide favorable educational process to accomplishing the objectives. Therefore, foreign language learning should be performed ideally by an instructor for the learners, thereby facilitating the accomplishment of objectives in foreign language learning .
As a scientific subject, Arabic includes many different parts of the major abilities. Listening skills (maharah al-istima'), speaking skills (maharah al-kalam), reading skills (maharat al-qira’ah), and writing skills (maharah al-kitabah) are the most important . All 4 linguistic skills are chronological and interdependent. People who study Arabic will quickly grasp the language if they begin by practicing these abilities systematically, beginning with hearing, then speaking, and so on. Similarly, people will have difficulties truly mastering Arabic if studying without paying attention to the methodical skills that must be learned [27, 28].
In Arabic learning, the instructors tell the students in order to meet the educational targets of learning a new language namely comprehend Arabic linguistic skills and abilities, resulting in the development of linguistic abilities.
2.2 Learning management system (LMS)
Learning Management System has a basic understanding as a software program managing the governance, execution, and evaluation of a teaching session autonomously. Online learning using e-learning is largely determined by the Learning Management System (LMS) model developed and its optimal, effective and efficient use. The development of a Learning Management System (LMS) requires a broad insight into the program for all levels, facilitating students to study individually or in groups. Munir's research shows that the convenience factor and the usefulness factor of the Learning Management System (LMS) have a positive impact on the student attitude factor in the use of the Learning Management System (LMS) [11, 29].
In the higher education sector, the Learning Management System, sometimes abbreviated as the LMS, is a platform linking instructors and learners This provides a channel for readily sharing lecture notes or exercises. It is indeed a gateway that enables instructors and learners to communicate beyond the lecture, holding conversations in communities that may otherwise squander time being spent learning in class. Students utilize the internet to get additional knowledge with regard to comprehending lessons and brainstorming ideas for home work.
Padlet is an application created by Nitesh Goel in 2008 in the United States. Applications can save and copy files and documents which the teacher can then send to students. Padlet application is used to collaborate and communicate learning objectives by teachers to students. Through e-learning-based media, it can make it easier for students to express their ideas or ideas in each lesson [5, 30, 31].
Padlet is an online learning application that is simply often called an online whiteboard or commonly known as an online synchronous platform, Padlet can be used on smartphones, tablets, laptops or computers. Through the Padlet application, it can provide a forum for collaborative learning media between teachers and students in participating simultaneously, both of them can send and share ideas and thoughts in the form of videos, images or writing . Padlet is a free social networking site where people can debate or discuss specific topics and easily use multimedia elements to perfect their words. Padlet is a web-based online wall where ideas are collected via virtual posts from users .
The function of the Padlet application according to Waltermeyer et al.  in learning include the following: 1) Discussion Place. The discussion referred to in the Padlet media is a group discussion. Teachers and students can paste the results of their discussions or materials on the Padlet wall. 2) Feedback. This feedback is given by the teacher to help students understand a lesson by responding to the work done by other students. The Padlet application can accommodate responses that arise from students. 3) Work in group. When the first group sends answers through this medium, the teacher instructs other groups to check the answers that have been posted by the first group. So that all group members can understand the opinion of group members who have sent their answers. 4) Student Portfolio Documentation. Portfolio is a collection of student assignments that show development, skills, and efforts in one or more fields.
This research is carried out with a descriptive qualitative method, meaning that the research data is in the form of words and sentences and facts that occur, so that the qualitative method is considered very appropriate for the theme of this research.
The source of this research data is the facts in the research site, therefore the source of this research data is lecturers and students who use Padlets as a platform for learning Arabic. Data were collected by observation techniques, interviews and documentation studies. Observation is a technique of collecting data through observation of the object of study . The observations used were non-participatory, because researchers were not directly involved with informant activities. The interview is a technique of collecting research data through direct interaction with informants .
The research informants are lecturers and students who use Padlet as LMS at Imam Bonjol State Islamic University, research informants are determined by purposive techniques. The point is that researchers provide equal opportunities to all lecturers and all students, and their position as informants is in accordance with the needs at the time of the implementation of the research.
To make it easier to obtain data through interviews, the type of interview chosen is a free interview, where researchers provide an opportunity for informants to convey the content of their thoughts related to the research topic. Data collection techniques are also carried out with documentation studies , that is, collecting data from documents related to the research topic.
The research data is analyzed with interactive techniques, namely researchers analyzing research data in line with data collection. To ensure the validity of the data, the techniques used are triangulation of sources, techniques and times.
4.1 Description of Padlet as an LMS and its use for Arabic learning
Learning Arabic Language using Padlet as an LMS can be described as the results of the study in Table 1 below:
Table 1. The use Padlet data description
Students get the same opportunity
All students get the same opportunity both in carrying out their obligations and getting rights as students.
Learning materials can be accessed not only at the time of learning
Learning materials that are carried out face-to-face can only be found by students during the process, but using the material Padlet can be accessed according to the wishes of students.
Internet access must be strong
Institutions that organize learning using platforms such as Padlets must have strong internet access.
Appealing to students
The use of learning platforms such as Padlets is attractive to learners, so their motivation in learning Arabic is increasing.
In accordance with the data contained in Table 1 above, it can be emphasized that the use of Padlet as LMS has the advantage that students have the same opportunity. The same opportunity as intended is that students who do not have the opportunity to attend in person in the lecture room can take part in learning. This data is in line with what is revealed by students that attendance in lectures is more optimal because it can be accessed remotely.
In addition, by using the Padlet as an LMS, students can also access learning materials whenever they have free time. This advantage opens up opportunities for every student who is unable to attend to be able to find learning materials. These findings are in line with the conclusions expressed by Zainuddin et al which confirms that Padlet as an LMS helps students who are not present to stay aware of the learning material .
On the other hand, the use of Padlets as LMS requires the power of the internet network. This reality shows that every educational innovation must be accompanied by adequate financial support, because it is impossible for the online learning process to take place smoothly without sufficient allocation of funds. this statement is in line with the conclusion that affirms that educational innovation must be supported with adequate funding .
From Table 1, it can also be understood that the use of Padlet as LMS is interesting for students, students who take part in Arabic learning using Padlet state that the use of Padlet is very interesting. These findings are in line with the conclusions of the researchers who revealed that to provide new enthusiasm for students, educators must innovate [40, 41]. Learning innovation can be done in various ways such as trying to use new media, the latest methods and even new approaches , and the use of the latest strategies . And the new innovation used according to the findings of this study is innovation in terms of approach and learning media, namely using Padlet.
4.2 Learning activity by using Padlet
Online learning is very common in use compared to the previous few years. Today's technology has developed in such a way that students can access learning from web conferencing via their laptops and gadgets. One example of media that can be used for online learning is the Learning Management System using Padlet.
Figure 1. Padlet display for Arabic learning
In accordance with Figure 1 above, it can be explained that the Padlet as an LMS as used in Arabic language learning in higher education has quite complete features. The completeness of the feature is characterized by the existence of access for students to communicate with their friends, students can communicate with lecturers who teach. Learning materials can be accessed by students, students can also upload lecture assignments. The most important aspect with the use of this Padlet is that students can access lecture materials whenever they want.
In Figure 1 above, it can be seen that the Arabic learning material with the theme "al-sa'ah". The theme is accompanied by some vocabulary, Tanya sentences, as well as some examples of using the Tanya sentence in a complete sentence. From Figure 1, it can also be seen that students upload assignments that are required by lecturers to students.
Figure 1 above also corresponds to the results of interviews with several students related to the use of Padlets in Arabic language learning. Students state that they are facilitated to learn Arabic by using Padlets, the convenience that students mean is that they can repeat to listen to the lecturer's explanation of the material that has been studied. In addition, by using the Padlet as an LMS, students know quickly the learning outcomes they have obtained.
The above data is in line with the conclusions found by previous academics who affirm that technology with several types of it helps the realization of quality education and helps educators and learners [44, 45].
The rapid development of technology allows students to access the use of audio and video in synchronous activities that aim to provide direct interaction for students who participate in online learning. Online learning can be separated into two categories, namely synchronous and asynchronous .
Learning activities are categorized as synchronous if online learning or distance learning occurs in real-time, there is interaction at the same time between lecturers and students, either in the form of chat or face-to-face via video conference. In synchronous learning activities, all students carry out the same activity simultaneously at the same time. Examples of other synchronous learning activities, such as group assignments in FGDs via video conference, or oral exams .
The Synchronous element in the Padlet used in Arabic learning is in the form of a web meeting with a link added in the LMS and can be accessed at every meeting when an explanation of material from the lecturer, student product presentation, or discussion is needed. Lecturers provide video recordings under the related Sub-Points after the web meeting is completed so that students who are unable to attend can access and observe lectures on the subject.
Asynchronous activity on the LMS occurs online without real-time interaction. This activity can be carried out even when the lecturer or student is offline (inactive), for example communication delivered via the web, email and messages posted on the LMS. Students will usually complete assignments on their own and simply use the internet as a support tool.
The asynchronous elements in the Padlet used in Arabic Learning include independent and group assignments. Where students must analyze videos, answer questions, and make conclusions in the form of audio recordings, all of which are given a deadline for collection by the lecturer concerned (in this case, the researcher acts as a lecturer). After students collect assignments, the lecturer will provide grades along with input and feedback so that students can learn and correct mistakes in doing assignments.
Examples of this include asynchronous activities because students can work on their own, not done simultaneously, there is no interaction with lecturers while doing assignments, and the use of the internet is only used as a support. Lecturers also give grades in the LMS when the assignments have been checked.
The Padlet Platform for Distance Learning makes a very positive contribution to College Students. This platform is very suitable for the Arabic Language Learning Media Platform. Padlet provides complete features that are easily accessible to students. This Padlet can be designed as creatively as possible even for students but can be made interesting so that students are interested in participating in learning.
The researcher would like to thank all parties who have played a role in the success of this research, thank you to lecturers and students at Imam Bonjol State Islamic University Padang, who have provided data in accordance with research needs. Thank you to the Rector Islamic State University of Imam Bonjol Padang and the Rector Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatra, who have provided opportunities for lecturers to collaborate in carrying out research.
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