An Integrated System for Smart Industrial Monitoring System in the Context of Hazards Based on the Internet of Things

An Integrated System for Smart Industrial Monitoring System in the Context of Hazards Based on the Internet of Things

Neelam Sanjeev KumarGokul Chandrasekaran Karthikeyan Panjappagounder Rajamanickam 

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600025, India

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Velalar College of Engineering and Technology, Erode 638012, India

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Chennai, SIMTS, Thandalm, Chennai 602105, India

Corresponding Author Email:
1 June 2020
16 December 2020
28 February 2021
| Citation



A huge unexpected upheaval, a blast, or the emanation of any lethal gas because of mishaps, inadequacy or simple carelessness by industry authorities, has brought about innumerable passing’s, wounds and caused huge harms, upsetting the lives of the sufferers' as well as the ages to come. To stay away from any potential debacle of this greatness, this task proposes a modern checking framework dependent on the Internet of Things (IoT). This structure venture makes a mechanical observing framework that identifies abnormal measures of gases, for example, carbon monoxide, LPG, butane, hydrogen which could cause a blast. It additionally screens the dimensions of air contamination ousted by the business together with checking the temperature and dampness levels. If any of the parameters transcends the most extreme security edge, the concerned business authority will be informed. The safety of the industry is ensured by integrating information from various sensors. The system is consistent and steady. It is the best and most prudent method for hardware security observing.


IoT, sensor, disaster, hazards, communication, safety

1. Introduction

Wounds, characteristic impact, and material mischief these types of accidents may be a direct result of the mechanical method, some essentialness related issue or transport works out. They are generally associated with either enormous inventories of ignitable, flimsy, or very open gases or of standard risky manufactured substances in method organizations or smaller measures of uncommonly hurtful and steady gases. The causes rise out of unsafe situational and climatic conditions and assortments. These may fuse over the top noise, high temperature, and sodden conditions. Regardless, the noteworthy explanation behind any advanced accident is spillage of ignitable gases, for instance, hydrogen, butane, propane, LPG which could cause an impact of tremendous degree inciting decimating results to the enveloping condition. It prompts different going of people and various misfortunes.

A lot of carbon monoxide when released by organizations, has different hazardous effects on individuals. Reactions of smooth extreme hurting join wooziness, perplexity, cerebral torment, vertigo, and flu-like effects; greater exposures can provoke gigantic lethality of the central tactile framework and heart and passing. After extraordinary hurting, long stretch sequelae much of the time occur. Steady prologue to low components of carbon monoxide can provoke despair, perplexity, and memory incident. In like manner, this arrangement adventures go for watching the elements of these gases in a cutting-edge circumstance in order to give shielded and approachable conditions to everybody to work in and to keep up a vital good ways from any potential disaster. These smart industries will be absolutely additionally evolved and modified as differentiated and existing ones and able to Monitoring just as controlling of different Industrial applications. IoT is used for transmission and gathering of information. These systems are used to screen mechanical applications by realizing industry standard shows using IoT. In this system little degree mechanical applications like liquid level control, essentialness watching, etc. can screen remotely through remote contraptions, mobiles, and PCs. The essential purpose of this paper is to summarize centrality of IoT which will screen little extension of current applications

2. Motivation

Many control applications can profit and perform better if freely planned independently found, yet commonly influencing, subsystems arrange and work. Successful coordination of these subsystems is imperative to accomplish the ideal generally framework execution. Such coordination performs more complex assignments than initially proposed, and subsequently improves the operational unwavering quality of a plant. Be that as it may, such a co-appointment requires exact framework models as well as powerful parameters. Another numerous sensor organizer-based sensor approval plot that consolidates the methods of delicate figuring is exhibited in this postulation. The fundamental thought is to improve the operational unwavering quality of a plant by coordinating the information from numerous sensors, (utilized in most modern procedures for observing different states and natural conditions) and utilizing it for assessing the central yield. Insightful control is an alluring contender to manage complex control framework issues as it is less model subordinate.

The vision of omnipresent figuring requires the improvement of gadgets and innovations, which can be inescapable without being meddlesome. The essential segments of such a shrewd situation will be little hubs with detecting and remote correspondences capacities, ready to compose adaptably into a system for information gathering and conveyance. The consistent upgrades in computerized circuit innovation have made the arrangement of such little, economical, low-control, dispersed gadgets, which are fit for data social event, handling, and correspondence in small scale bundling, a reality. Acknowledging such a system shows noteworthy difficulties, particularly at the convention and programming level. Significant strides forward are required in the field of correspondences convention, information handling, and application support. Despite the fact that sensor hubs will be outfitted with a power supply and inserted processor that makes them self-sufficient and mindful, their usefulness and capacities will be restricted. Lately, unmanned systems have increased expanded noticeable quality, the driving components are the unwavering quality, new plan strategies that can give a viable dividing of the computational burden, and diminished expense. Future remote frameworks utilized for complex frameworks require higher degrees of independence to adjust to new conditions and perform new capacities, past those predetermined at dispatch. In such frameworks, the flag preparing information way and control tasks establish the majority of the handling load. The outcomes will go for delivering an improvement in speed got when part of the calculation is quickened in equipment without bargaining the adaptability.

The monitor temperature change in the environment, the continuous growth, and various application of the internet of things make it easier [1]. This research work intended towards an integrated information system and which provides a precise approach to connect the internet of things to sensors [2]. In this work, it shows the way to connect a physical object to enable it in intelligent decision-making capability. It summarized how to enable IoT and artificial intelligence in the industrial approach [3]. The Ethernet-based field control modules are intended for numerous information and yield courses of action for industrial as well as non-industrial applications [4]. The framework is fast, low inertness and needs less power. Another arrangement is received for the customary checking and controls of Industrial applications through the execution of IoT utilizing GPRS [5]. The term Internet of Things was presented with regards to flexibly chain the executives and it portrays a framework where the advanced world is associated with the physical world shaping a worldwide system [6].

It applied the Internet of Things in sense and control the convoluted perils in the procedure of mining [7]. Then it set a mechanical IoT framework in both deterministic and arbitrary sending [8] and attempt to make an arrangement of IoT with industry in a consecutive way [9]. Further proposed structure is an all-encompassing methodology for empowering conveyed checking and control applications and a move towards understanding the vision of the Services of Things [10]. In a new era, it blends of Wireless Sensor Network and Electrochemical Toxic Gas Sensors and the utilization of a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) labeling framework to screen vehicle contamination records whenever anyplace [11].

Modern features drove Industry 4.0 that brings the idea of the Internet of Things in the business [12]. Making things easy it was an attempt to execute Lab VIEW and GSM for collaboration [13]. The proposed strategy is to plan a productive framework to peruse and screen contamination parameters and if any of these variables surpasses the business guidelines, quickly these data send to contamination control authority by utilizing GSM and Lab VIEW technique. This will consequently screen if any of these parameters influencing the framework and furthermore these parameters can be screen through the web by utilizing Lab VIEW programming.

The further new technique proposed new techniques dependent on nearby ascribe identification are proposed to recognize and find contamination territories where no framework for correspondence is available [14]. The study proposes a WSN observing design for process-robotization advances that tends to the referenced impediments. In particular, engineering has a low effect on sensor hub assets, utilizes arrange measurements effectively accessible in modern gauges, and exploits broadly utilized administration norms to share the checking data [15].

Industrial used examined brilliant conditions by IoT [16]. Brilliant items will plan, control and advance their own creation procedure with negligible human intercession by tackling progressing improvements in sensor innovation, machine-to-machine correspondence [17], enormous information examination [18] and AI [19, 20]. Upgraded access to information from the Industrial IoT (IIoT) will bolster business applications on any gadget [21], whenever, from any area. Application framed a novel architecture of a smart healthcare system with cloud and IoT [22].

3. Experimental Setup

Mechanical checking and control is a mix of designs, instruments, and calculations utilized in the modern manufacturing plant for observing and control the exercises of modern procedures, engines, machines, and gadgets utilized in industrial premises to accomplish the objective. The objective of this project is to create an industrial monitoring system that monitors the air quality, temperature, humidity parameters to provide safe Workable conditions for the workers in industries. This project also aims at monitoring the levels of hydrogen, butane, propane, LPG, and carbon monoxide in order to avoid any mishap. This project uses Arduino Mega 2560 as the microcontroller which is interfaced with a variety of sensors. Figure 1 shows the basic flow of all sensors attached with proposed project.

3.1 MQ2

This sensor monitors the levels of flammable gases and in this particular project, this sensor is used to monitor hydrogen, propane, butane, and LPG levels. This sensor also helps in detecting a smoke breakout. The MQ 2 module is a gas sensor which is important for revelation in gas spillage in the undertakings. It is sensible for perceiving H2, LPG, CH4, CO, Alcohol, Smoke, or Propane. On account of its high affectability and fast response time, estimations can be accepted at the most punctual open door. MQ2 gas sensor has high affectability and it is easy and realistic for different applications.

Figure 1. Basic layout of project the sensors that are used

Figure 2. Sensitivity characteristics of MQ2 (Ref:

In Figure 2, X = ppm on the graph and Y= Rs/Ro.

MQ7: This sensor is used to monitor the levels of Carbon Monoxide.

MQ135: This is the air quality sensor that constantly keeps the levels of air pollution in check.

DHT11: This sensor is used to detect the temperature values and humidity parameters.

The information gathered from various sensors is analyzed with respect to threshold values already defined. This analysis is performed by controller available in the Auduino board. In case of any abnormality is detected from the sensor values, the authorities were intimated by using GSM module.

4. Methodology

All of these sensors pick up the values (gases in ppm, the temperature in Celsius, humidity in percentage and transfers them to the microcontroller. This work uses GSM technology in order to send an SMS to the industry official in case any of the sensor values exceed the minimum threshold value which signifies the ideal conditions in the industry. SIM900 GSM Modem is used for this purpose. A SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card is placed in its slot and then the GSM module is activated. Thus, when the sensor values go beyond the pre-set ideal values, then the GSM modem will send a message to alert the industry authority who can immediately take the necessary actions to avoid any mishap.

The project uses Arduino Mega 2560 as the microcontroller which is interfaced with a variety of sensors like MQ2 Flammable Gas Sensor and Carbon monoxide Sensor termed as MQ7another one MQ135 for measuring the Air Quality of industry, and a DHT11 is used for measuring the variation of Temperature and Humidity. The sensor readings are directly proportional to the concentrations of the gases that it can detect. To convert these values to ppm, use the following Eq. (1)

$p p m=4047.489\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)^{-2.27897}$     (1)

Constants ‘a’ and ‘b’ can be found out by performing power regression on the curves. These ppm values are then used to set the safety threshold. This project uses GSM technology in order to send an SMS to the industry official in case any of the sensor values exceed the minimum threshold value which signifies the ideal conditions in the industry. In the event that anyone of the sensors experiences a condition that surpasses this threshold, the GSM module will immediately notify the concerned official of the problem.

The following formulas were derived by performing power regression on the characteristic curves of the sensors:

When precisely estimating, the correct alert point for the gas finder ought to be resolved in the wake of considering the temperature and moistness impact. The Eqns. (2), (3) and (4) represent the sensor voltage, Rs and ratio measurement.

To determine $\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)$ ratio:

$\text { Sensor voltage }=\text { analog sensor value } \times 0.0048828$    (2)

$R \text { valueofthegas }=\frac{5-\text { sensor voltage }}{\text { sensor voltage }}$    (3)

$\text { Ratio }=R s \times 3.3333$    (4)

So, the following formulas were derived (5)-(11) by performing power regression on the characteristic curves of the sensors:

$\text { H2, Ratio }=R s \times 3.3333 \text { ppm }=1021.935\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)^{-2.05519}$     (5)

$\mathrm{LPG}, p p m=651.6743\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)^{-2.02616}$     (6)

$\text { Propane, } p p m=680.0073\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)^{-2.09727}$     (7)

$\text { Smoke, } p p m=110.6209\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)^{-2.44226}$     (8)

MQ7 Carbon Monoxide Sensor

$\mathrm{CO}, p p m=4047.489\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)^{-1.59349}$     (9)

MQ135 Air Quality Sensor

$\mathrm{CO} 2, p p m=116.6020\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)^{-2.76903}$     (10)

$\mathrm{NH} 3, p p m=110.6209\left(\frac{R_{S}}{R_{o}}\right)^{-2.44226}$     (11)

The Figure 3 shows the general task module and the ideal yields are effectively acquired.

Figure 3. Experimental setup

5. Results and Discussion

A smart reconfigurable assembling asset is improved with internet intelligence, giving nearby control to the physical assembling asset, plug – and – play capacity, and high computational strength. Considerably more, the equipment and programming building squares of a reconfigurable assembling asset can be revamped so as to acquire an alternate then before usefulness with a base exertion and postponement. This venture can be actualized every day in a mechanical situation so it can screen the ideal temperature and mugginess conditions so over the top stickiness doesn't cause the mileage of the machines.

It also monitors the levels of air pollution by detecting the presence of ammonia expelled by industries so as to provide a hospitable environment for the workers in the factory and for the lives around the industries. It also carefully monitors the amounts of carbon monoxide emitted by the processes occurring in the industries and detects unusual amounts of flammable gases such as hydrogen, butane, propane, and LPG in order to avoid any major explosion. It also alerts the authorities in the case of a fire breakout. To sum it up, many lives can be saved due to its implementation and the health of workers can be assured in the many years to come. Their improvement will be upheld by profoundly interoperable measured equipment and programming squares, nonexclusive installed frameworks, continuous implanted working framework, canny data the executives' calculations, and instructive electrical-mechanical interfaces. The following Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6 respectively depict the working of the sensors under normal air conditions:

Figure 4. Mq2 flammable gas sensor

Figure 5. Mq135 air quality sensor

Figure 6. Mq7 carbon monoxide sensor

The sensitivity of the proposed system depends on the each one of the sensors sensitivity.

The modem needed only two wires (Tx, Rx) except Power supply to interface with microcontroller/Host. Using this modem, you will be able to send & read SMS, connect to the internet via GPRS through simple AT commands.

The information about the present condition of the industry is intimated to the concerned official as SMS to their mobile. The SMS is only sent when any abnormality is detected or if any safety issues arrived.

6. Conclusions

The number of industrial disasters due to accidents or mere negligence is steadily rising every year. The past has numerous accounts of industrial accidents that have caused the death of many human beings. This shows that one small human error could cause the lives of many innocent people and also cause distress in the lives of people who survive by causing them permanent disability. Thus, this project focuses mainly on eliminating the possibility of human errors in the industrial site which could reduce the probability of an accident. It focuses on monitoring the ideal temperature and humidity conditions in order to keep the equipment in its optimum condition for working. It constantly monitors the levels of ammonia and carbon monoxide emitted in order to keep the air pollution levels in check. Flammable gases such as hydrogen, propane, butane, and LPG are also checked which are the main causes of an explosion. It is imperative that the concerned industry authorities are notified in the event of an abnormal increase in the concentration of any of these gases and therefore this project employs the GSM technology which aids in immediately sending a message so that the precautionary measures can be undertaken. This paper has introduced the structure and usage of the Internet of things for checking and controlling of different application and parameters in ventures utilizing remote correspondence strategy. The work presented in this report can be extended in many directions; A method can be suggested to control the unusual concentrations of these gases in the industries which will completely eliminate the occurrence of an accident. The proposed system, if implemented with a network of high-grade sensors, can form an effective safety mechanism in the industries.


This project was done in CEG, Anna university and results collected from that prototype. We thank Prof. Dr. P Nirmalkumar for his continuous support and Guidance.


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