Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement


As an academic publisher, the IIETA is committed to meeting the highest standards of ethical behaviour at all stages of the publication process. International Journal of Environmental Impacts (IJEI) is an open-access journal ran by the IIETA. The journal is published regularly with four regular issues (excluding special issues) and one volume per year, and accessible online at From submission to publication, each paper is handled by the editorial board of the journal as per the best practice principles below.

Research Integrity

The IIETA works hard to create an environment that fosters the strictest scientific and ethical standards. The fundamental principles of research integrity, or responsible conduct of research, include honesty in all aspects of research; scrupulous care, thoroughness, and excellence in research practice; transparency and open communication; and care and respect for all participants in and subjects of research.

  • Honesty in gathering data; using and acknowledging the work of others; presenting research goals, intentions, and findings; reporting on research methods and procedures; and conveying valid interpretations and making justifiable claims based on research findings.
  • Scrupulous care, thoroughness, and excellence in performing research and using appropriate methods; adhering to an agreed protocol where appropriate; drawing interpretations and conclusions from the research; and communicating the results.
  • Transparency and open communication in the reporting of research data collection methods; the analysis and interpretation of data; making research findings widely available; and presenting the work to other researchers and to the general public.
  • Care and respect for all participants in and subjects of research, including humans, animals, the environment, and cultural objects; and the stewardship of research and scholarship for future generations.

We are fully committed to the above principles, and unwaveringly support researchers in embedding them in their everyday work.

Editorial Process

The IIETA is committed to editorial independence, and strive in all cases to prevent this principle from being compromised through conflicts of interest, fear, or any other corporate, business, financial or political influence. We do not discriminate against authors, editors or peer reviewers based on personal characteristics or identity. During the editorial process,

  • Each paper submitted to our journals is initially evaluated by an editor covering the subject area, who will decide whether to send it for peer review in consultation with experts in relevant fields. If the paper is suitable for consideration by the IIETA, the editor who has been assigned the paper will select a minimum of two peer reviewers for the paper, after consulting the editors who have lately handled papers in relevant fields. The editor must guarantee the selection of peer reviewers who are most qualified and best able to provide a critical, expert, and unbiased evaluation of the paper.
  • Editorial decisions on each paper are made by the editor who has been assigned the paper based on the comments of the peer reviewers. Possible decisions include accept, minor revision, major revision, and rejection. The decisions are made solely based on the scientific merits of the content of the paper, regardless of the author’s gender, sexual orientation, religious or political beliefs, or their ethnic or geographic origin. 
  • The editor who has been assigned the paper not divulge any information relating to the paper to any other person beyond the authors and reviewers. He/she is also ultimately in charge of ensuring the timely completion of the peer review and publication/rejection of the paper. The editorial board of the journal are committed to the confidentiality of papers, authors, and reviewers, ensuring the necessary anonymity in the publishing process.

The names, affiliations, and contact information of each member in the IJEI editorial board can be accessed at

Peer Review 

Peer review is critical to maintaining the standards of our publication. Peer-reviewed articles are building blocks of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. For each paper entering the peer review process, at least two peer reviewers are selected, who must be independent from the authors and their institutions, able to evaluate the technical aspects of the paper, and available to evaluate the paper within the required period. The peer reviewers selected are expected to:

  • Furnish an objective and detailed evaluation of the paper, and contribute to the decision-making process;
  • Keep any information provided by the editor who has been assigned the paper confidential, without copying or keeping the manuscript;
  • Alert the editor who has been assigned the paper any content that has been published and that is highly similar to the paper being reviewed;
  • Notify the editor who has been assigned the paper any potential conflict of interest;
  • Reason his/her evaluations, and submit a complete, detailed report to the editor who has been assigned the paper; and
  • Commit to evaluating the paper as quickly as possible to meet the deadlines, and advise the editor who has been assigned the paper immediately about the risk of failing to finish the evaluation within the required period.

Confidentiality is of paramount importance to the peer review process. Reviewers must maintain confidentiality of manuscripts. If a reviewer wishes to seek advice from colleagues while assessing a manuscript, he/she must consult with the editor and provide the names of any such colleagues to the journal with the final report.

Regardless of whether a submitted manuscript is eventually published, correspondence with the journal, reviewers’ comments and other confidential material must not be published, disclosed, or otherwise publicised without prior written consent. Reviewers should be aware that it is our policy to keep their names confidential and that we do our utmost to ensure this confidentiality.

Authors and Authors Responsibilities

Authorship provides credit for a researcher’s paper to a study and carries accountability. Each author is expected to meet the following requirements:

  • Having made substantial papers to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data; or the creation of new software used in the work;
  • Having drafted the work or substantively revising it;
  • Having approved the submitted version; and
  • Having agreed both to be personally accountable for the author's own papers and to ensure that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work, even ones in which the author was not personally involved, are appropriately investigated, resolved, and the resolution documented in the literature.

The corresponding author, as the person who handles the manuscript and correspondence during the publication process, is responsible for ensuring that data and materials comply with transparency and reproducibility standards of the field and journal; ensuring that original data and materials upon which the submission is based are preserved following best practices in the field so that they are retrievable for reanalysis; confirming that data and materials accurately reflects the original; foreseeing and minimizing obstacles to the sharing of data and materials described in the work; serving as the point of contact for queries about the published paper, namely, informing all co-authors of any matters arising in relation to the published paper and to ensure such matters are dealt with promptly, and notifying the journal immediately if he/she becomes aware of any aspect that requires correction.

Journal Complaint and Appeal Handling

  • Reception and Record: All complaints regarding journal content and processes must be submitted via the official email and will be formally recorded.
  • Preliminary Assessment and Investigation: Upon receipt of a complaint, the journal's responsible person will assess it. If investigation is necessary, a dedicated team will be formed and may contact relevant parties.
  • Decision and Feedback: Based on the investigation, the editorial board will make a fact-based and standard-compliant decision, and inform the complainant of the outcome.
  • Appeal Process: Those dissatisfied with the decision can appeal within 30 days, to be reviewed by an independent panel that will make a final judgment.
  • Transparency and Improvement: The journal will regularly review this procedure and publish relevant statistics to ensure transparency and continuous improvement.


Plagiarism is unacknowledged copying or an attempt to misattribute original authorship, whether of ideas, text, or results. We do not tolerate plagiarism in any of our publications, and we reserve the right to check all submissions through appropriate plagiarism checking tools. Submissions containing suspected plagiarism, in whole or part, will be rejected. The IIETA journal editors assess all the following cases of plagiarism on their individual merits.

  • Plagiarism can be said to have clearly occurred when large chunks of text have been cut-and-pasted without appropriate and unambiguous attribution. Aside from wholesale verbatim reuse of text, due care must be taken to ensure appropriate attribution and citation when paraphrasing and summarizing the work of others. 
  • Text recycling, or reuse of parts of text from an author’s previous research publication, is a form of self-plagiarism. When reusing text, whether from the author’s own publication or that of others, appropriate attribution and citation is necessary to avoid creating a misleading perception of unique paper for the reader.
  • Duplicate publication occurs when an author reuses substantial parts of his/her own published work without providing the appropriate references. This can range from publishing an identical paper in multiple journals, to only adding a small amount of new data to a published paper.

The IIETA uses iThenticate to screen for unoriginal material. Authors should be aware that their paper may be submitted to CrossRef at any point from submission to publication. Any allegations of plagiarism made to a journal will be investigated. If the allegations appear to be founded, we will request all named authors of the paper to explain the overlapping material. If the explanation is not satisfactory, we will reject the submission, and may also reject future submissions.

If plagiarism is discovered post publication, the IIETA may correct or retract the original publication depending on the degree of plagiarism, context within the published article and its impact on the overall integrity of the published study. We expect our readers, reviewers, and editors to raise any suspicions of plagiarism, either by contacting the relevant editor or by emailing

Duplicate and Redundant Publication

Duplicate or redundant publication occurs when a work or a substantial part of it is published more than once by the author(s) of the work without appropriate cross-referencing or justification. When authors submit manuscripts to our journals, these manuscripts should not be under consideration, accepted for publication or in press within a different journal, book or similar entity.

If part of a paper that an author wishes to submit to an IIETA journal has appeared or will appear elsewhere, he/she must specify the details in the cover letter at the submission. Consideration by the IIETA journal is possible only if the main result, conclusions, or implications are not apparent from the other work, or if the other work is published in a language other than English. In case of any doubt, authors should seek advice from the editor handling their paper.

If an author is re-using a figure or figures published elsewhere, or that is copyrighted, the author must provide documentation that the previous publisher or copyright holder has given permission for the figure to be re-published. The IIETA editors consider all material in good faith that their journals have full permission to publish every part of the submitted material, including figures.

We expect our readers, reviewers, and editors to raise any suspicions of duplicate or redundant publication either by contacting the relevant editor or by emailing

Conflicts of Interest and Funding

In the interests of transparency and to help readers form their own judgements of potential bias, the IIETA requires authors to declare any competing interests in relation to the work described. The competing interests are defined as financial and non-financial interests that could directly undermine, or be perceived to undermine the objectivity, integrity, and value of a publication, through a potential influence on the judgements and actions of authors regarding objective data presentation, analysis, and interpretation.

The corresponding author is responsible for submitting a competing interests’ statement via the open journal system (OJS) on behalf of all authors of the paper. Since the IIETA adopts a double-blind peer review, reviewers will be provided with a minimal statement disclosing the existence of any financial or non-financial interest, to prevent the disclosure of authors’ identities. We also expect that anyone who suspects an undisclosed conflict of interest regarding a work published or under consideration by IIETA to inform the relevant editor or email

Ethical Oversight Policy

  • Establishment of Ethics Committee: Form an ethics committee responsible for reviewing and overseeing the ethical standards of all research activities.
  • Review Process: Conduct ethical reviews of all research submitted to the journal to ensure compliance with international ethical standards.
  • Regular Training: Provide regular ethical training for editors and reviewers to ensure their understanding of current ethical standards and practices.
  • Complaint Handling: Offer clear channels for receiving and addressing complaints or concerns regarding ethics.
  • Transparency Assurance: Maintain transparency in decision-making processes and regularly publish the results and statistics of ethical reviews

Retractions, Corrections and Expressions of Concern

The IIETA operates the following policy for making corrections to the print and online versions of our peer-reviewed content. Three kinds of amendments are relevant for peer-reviewed material:

  • Erratum: Notification of an important error made by the journal that affects the publication record or the scientific integrity of the paper, or the reputation of the authors or of the journal.
  • Corrigendum: Notification of an important error made by the author(s) that affects the publication record or the scientific integrity of the paper, or the reputation of the authors or the journal.
  • Retraction: Notification of invalid results that affect the reliability of a previously published article. The original article is marked as retracted but remains available to readers. Retractions are reserved for articles that are so seriously flawed that their findings or conclusions should not be relied upon.

Accepted manuscripts may make minor changes such as those which would likely occur during typesetting or proofreading but not substantive corrections. Anyone who believes that research published by IIETA has not been carried out in line with these principles could raise their concerns with the relevant editor, or email

Image Manipulation, Falsification and Fabrication

Where research data are collected or presented as images, modifying these images can sometimes misrepresent the results obtained or their significance. The IIETA recognizes that there can be legitimate reasons for image modification. But we expect authors to avoid modifying images, if this leads to the falsification, fabrication, or misrepresentation of their results.

Fraudulent Research and Research Misconduct

Fraudulent research and research misconduct distort the evidence base, misdirect research effort, waste funds, and damage public trust in science. The IIETA and its editors have long championed measures to tackle research fraud and misconduct. Where an author is found to commit research fraud or misconduct, we will conduct investigation with appropriate institutions or organizations. Any publication found to include fraudulent results will be retracted, or an appropriate correction will be issued.

Journal Policies on Data Sharing and Reproducibility

  • Data Sharing Principles: Authors are encouraged to share original data and methods to enhance transparency and verifiability of research. Data should be shared on public databases or platforms provided by the journal.
  • Data Storage and Access: Authors are required to provide data storage locations and access methods upon publication. Data should comply with privacy and confidentiality standards.
  • Reproducibility Standards: Articles should detail experimental methods and analysis procedures to enable replication of results by other researchers.
  • Handling Exceptions: If data cannot be shared due to copyright or privacy concerns, authors must explain and justify this in the paper.
  • Responsibility and Compliance: Authors must ensure the authenticity and integrity of data, adhering to academic integrity standards.

Data and Supporting Evidence

The IIETA advocates the transparency and openness around data code, and other materials associated with research. We expect authors to maintain accurate records of supporting evidence necessary to facilitate the understanding, verification, and replication of their findings, and to supply or provide access to this supporting evidence, on reasonable request.

Integrity of Record

The IIETA maintains a record of the existence of everything we publish with information (metadata) describing each publication. If our content is deemed not to comply with the laws of a sovereign nation, we will make every effort to ensure the metadata remain accessible within that jurisdiction. We preserve the academic record as far as possible, if we are obliged to alter the publication record in any way, such as a retraction against research misconduct.


The IIETA is fully committed to the principle and promotion of freedom of speech and expression. As a global publisher, our goal is to disseminate knowledge to the widest possible audience, and to serve the academic community in all countries around the world. However, we do not support publishing false statements that harm the reputation of individuals, groups, or organizations.

Archiving Policy of IIETA

IIETA ensures the long-term preservation and accessibility of its journal content through electronic archiving via Portico. This commitment guarantees that even in the event of discontinuation of a journal, the articles and scholarly work remain accessible to readers and researchers. Portico, a widely recognized digital preservation service, provides a reliable and permanent archive of the scholarly record, ensuring the ongoing availability and integrity of IIETA's published content. This archival solution aligns with IIETA’s dedication to maintaining a robust and enduring academic record.

Copyright Information

Please note that starting from 2024, IIETA's journals will implement a new copyright policy. The copyright of the papers will be retained by the authors. All articles published from 2024 will be licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license. This means that while authors maintain full copyright of their work, they allow others to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon their work, even for commercial purposes, as long as the original creation is properly credited. This policy not only enhances the openness and accessibility of academic research but also aligns with IIETA's commitment to open access. Users are permitted to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles for any lawful purpose without needing prior permission from the publisher or the author. By submitting an article to IIETA, whether by email or through the online submission system, authors are deemed to acknowledge and agree to adhere to IIETA's current copyright policy.