Development of Vernonia Amygdalina Photosynthetic Membraneless Electrochemical Cell

Development of Vernonia Amygdalina Photosynthetic Membraneless Electrochemical Cell

A.B. Alabi T. Akomolafe J.A. Ajao N. Coppede O.A. Babalola A.E.C. Ihekwaba 

Department of Physics, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria

Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Italian National Research Council, IMEM CNR Parma, Italy

Institute of Food Research, Colney, Norwich, UK

Corresponding Author Email: 
remi050970@gmail.com
Page: 
33-40
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.14447/jnmes.v16i1.44
Received: 
2 February 2012
|
Accepted: 
7 March 2012
|
Published: 
10 September 2012
| Citation
Abstract: 

Experimental analyses of Vernonia amygdalina pigment from plant collected in Ilorin, Nigeria, have been carried out using spectrophotometer, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (400Hz) and X-ray diffractometer. Biological membraneless electrochemical cells were fabricated using ground hydrated chlorophyll containing tissues.

The cells were assembled by compaction of hydrated pigment housed in an air-tight 6.5 cm3 cylindrical container, with similar electrodes of copper material. Experimental results showed that the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum is strongly absorbed at 412 nm and 662 nm by Vernonia amygdalina. The qualitative analysis of the powdered sample of the material showed that the constituents of the sam- ple include Magnesium Carbide (Mg2C3), Nitrogen (N2) and Biuret Hydrate (C2H5N3O2H2O). In addition to this, chlorophyll a (chl a) and triglyceride were also shown to be major constituents of the pigment. The particle size of the pigment was deduced using X-ray diffracto- meter to be 2.6 nm, and as such, the processed Vernonia amygdalina pigment is therefore a nano-material for energy conversion by photo- synthetic processes.

The copper-copper electrodes photosynthetic cells generated current of about 4 µA and open circuit voltage of about 5 mV. The current generated by copper-zinc electrodes Photosynthetic Electrochemical Cell (PEC) ranged between 0.2 mA and 1.5 mA, while the open circuit voltage ranged between 0.4 V and 0.9 V. The simple preparation technique adopted, using widely available and low cost natural material showed that a biological photosynthetic electrochemical cell is feasible and promising.

Keywords: 

Photosynthetic electrochemical cell, Vernonia amygdalina, Chlorophyll, Oxidative degradation

1. Introduction
2. Experimentals
3. Results and Discussion
4. Conclusion
5. Acknowledgement
  References

[1] C.W. Tang, A.C. Albrecht, Journal of Chemical Physics, 62, 2139 (1975).

[2] K.B. Lam, E.A. Johnson, M. Chiao, L. Lin, Journal of Micro- electromechanical Systems, 15, 1243 (2006).

[3] K.B. Lam, E.F. Irvin, K.E. Healy, L. Lin, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 117, 480 (2006).

[4] W.D. Lawlor, Photosynthesis: Molecular, Physiological and Environmental Processes 2nd ed., Longman Scientific and Technical Essex, 1993, p. 3 -79.

[5] M. Jonathan, The Application of Photosynthetic Materials and Architectures for Solar Cells, in, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA, 2006.

[6] S.D. Minteer, B.Y. Law, M.J. Cooney, Current Opinion in Bio- technology, 18, 228 (2007).

[7] N. Wedel, J. Soll, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 9699-9704 (1998).

[8] M. Chiao, K.B. Lam, L. Lin, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 16, 2547 (2006).

[9] T. Yagishita, S. Sawayama, K.I. Tsukahara, T. Ogi, Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 85, 546 (1998).

[10] S. Bai, T. Fabian, F.B. Prinz, R.J. Fasching, Sensors and Ac- tuators B: Chemical, 130, 249 (2008).

[11] D. Neda, G.H.S. Bonjar, A.A. Saperi, S. Aghighi, Asian Jour- nal of Information Technology, 5, 126 (2006).

[12] U. Schroder, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 9, 2619 (2007).

[13] A.N. Matveev, Optics, Mir publishers, Moscow, 1998. [14]Y. Chisti, Biotechnological Advances, 25, 294 (2007).

[15] J.M. Nunzi, Comptes Rendus Physique, 3, 523 (2002).