The usages of electric vehicles (EVs) are increased drastically than IC engine based vehicles in order to protect the environment. During peak power requirement, to diminish the burden on the battery, Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) is developed by combining battery with ultracapacitor (UC). HESS based electric vehicles always give better results than the only battery-fed electric vehicle. The transition between the energy sources according to the driving conditions is the key obstacle associated with HESS based EVs. The key objective of this work is to realize a new controller control strategy, to switch the battery and UC according to the electric vehicle requirement. Total four math functions are considered and programmed individually corresponding to the speed of an electric motor called as Math Function Based (MFB) controller, thereafter the designed MFB has combined with conventional controllers formed a new hybrid controller for switching the energy sources according to the speed of an electric motor. In this work battery gets charged from the solar power during sunlight available timings, in the same way, discharges the same amount of power to the electric motor. A comparative analysis is done between two hybrid controllers named as MFB with PID and MFB with PI, based on different factors. All modes MATLAB/Simulation results are plotted and discussed.
electric vehicles (EVs), converters, battery, ultracapacitor (UC), hybrid energy storage system (HESS)
Averbukh M., Lineykin S., Kuperman A. (2015). Portable ultracapacitor-based power source for emergency starting of internal combustion engines. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 30, No. 8, pp. 4283-4290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2014.2355422
Camara M. B., Gualous H., Gustin F., Berthon A. (2008). Design and new control of DC/DC converters to share energy between supercapacitors and batteries in hybrid vehicles. IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, Vol. 57, No. 5, pp. 2721-2735. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TVT.2008.915491
Cao J., Emadi A. (2012). A new battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system for electric, hybrid, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 122-132.
Kuperman A., Aharon I. (2011). Battery–ultracapacitor hybrids for pulsed current loads: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 981-992.
Lustenader E. L., Guess R. H., Richter E., Turnbull F. G. (1977). Development of a hybrid flywheel/battery drive system for electric vehicle applications. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 135-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/T-VT.1977.23670
Manivannan S., Kaleeswaran E. (2016). Solar powered electric vehicle. InSustainable Green Buildings and Communities (SGBC), International Conference on 2016 Dec 18, IEEE, pp. 1-4.
Sadagopan S., Banerji S., Vedula P., Shabin M., Bharatiraja C. (2014). A solar power system for electric vehicles with maximum power point tracking for novel energy sharing. In India Educators' Conference (TIIEC), 2014 Texas Instruments, IEEE, pp. 124-130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIIEC.2014.029
Shen J., Khaligh A. (2016). Design and real-time controller implementation for a battery-ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 1910-1918. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TII.2016.2575798
Song Z., Li J., Han X., Xu L., Lu L., Ouyang M., Hofmann H. (2014). Multi-objective optimization of a semi-active battery/supercapacitor energy storage system for electric vehicles. Applied Energy, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 212-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.06.087
Tani A., Camara M. B., Dakyo B., Azzouz Y. (2013). DC/DC and DC/AC converters control for hybrid electric vehicles energy management-ultracapacitors and fuel cell. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 686-696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TII.2012.2225632
Wu D., Todd R., Forsyth A. J. (2015). Adaptive rate-limit control for energy storage systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 62, No. 7, pp. 4231-4240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2014.2385043
Xiang C., Wang Y., Hu S., Wang W. (2014). A new topology and control strategy for a hybrid battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system. Energies, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 2874-2896. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en7052874
Yin H., Zhou W., Li M., Ma C., Zhao C. (2016). An adaptive fuzzy logic-based energy management strategy on battery/ultracapacitor hybrid electric vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 300-311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TTE.2016.2552721
Zhang J., Shen T. (2015). Energy management strategy design for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with continuation/GMRES algorithm. In Control Conference (ECC), 2015 European, IEEE, pp. 2964-2969. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ECC.2015.7330988