Safety and Security (S&S) have the same goal, that is to maintain the integrity of human, infrastructure, hardware, software, capital and intangible assets of a system. However, literature and practice indicate that the relationship between S&S has not yet been clearly defined and their boundaries remain blurry. The current paper presents a short review of academic and professional literature about the relationship between S&S. This relationship is examined by looking at the S&S dependencies, their similarities and differences, and the role of the human element in achieving and maintaining the desired S&S levels. The review of literature showed that (1) there is a tendency to emphasize on the effects of security on safety and underestimate the opposite, (2) human factors are not part of security training to the extent are addressed in safety training, (3) security and safety problems can be the result of both internal and external disturbances and agents, (4) the intentionality or not of outcomes, and not of the action, can stand as a valid criterion to classify an event as a security or a safety one correspondingly, (5) S&S issues can result in negative implications internally and externally to the system, and (6) the synergy between S&S is of paramount importance for achieving the optimum levels of system protection. The positions of this paper might comprise a basis for enriching educational programmes around S&S and igniting relevant research.
 Burns, A., McDermid, J. & Dobson, J., On the meaning of safety and security. The Computer Journal, 35(1), pp. 3–15, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1093/comjnl/35.1.3
 Cusimano, J. & Byers, E., Safety and Security: Two Sides of the Same Coin, available at www.controlglobal.com (accessed 3 November 2017).
 Blanquart, J.P., Bieber, P., Descargues, G., Hazane, E., Julien, M. & Léonardon, M., Similarities and dissimilarities between safety levels and security levels. Proceedings of the 6th European Congress in Embedded Real Time Software and Systems, ERTSC, Toulouse, France, 2012.
 Fletcher, R. W., The next step: a fully integrated global multi-modal security and safety management system. Proceedings of the 30th International System Safety Conference, Atlanta, GA, 2012.
 Stoneburner, G., Toward a unified security/safety model. Computer, pp. 96–97, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/mc.2006.283
 ABB, Rocky Relationship Between Safety and Security, available at https://www.controlglobal.com/whitepapers/2014/rocky-relationship-between-safety-and-security/(accessed 3 November 2017).
 Hahn, J., Guillen, D.P. & Anderson, T., Process control systems in the chemical industry: safety vs security. Process Safety Progress, 25(1), pp. 40–43, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1002/prs.10114
 Dahlstrom, N. & Dekker, S., Security and Safety Synergy – Advancing Security With Human Factors Knowledge. Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, pp. 1–13, 2008.
 Piètre-Cambacédès, L. & Chaudet, C., Disentangling the Relations Between Safety and Security. Proceedings of the 9th WSEAS International Conference on Applied Informatics and Communications, Moscow, Russia, pp. 156–161, 2009.
 Pietre-Cambacedes, L. & Chaudet, C., The SEMA referential framework: avoiding ambiguities in the terms security and safety. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 3(2), pp. 55–66, 2010.
 Baird, P., The Relationship between Safety and Security, available at https://www.fda.gov/downloads/MedicalDevices/NewsEvents/WorkshopsConferences/UCM559599.pdf (accessed 10 November 2017).
 Firesmith, D.G., Common Concepts Underlying Safety, Security and Survivability Engineering (Technical Note CMU/SEI-2003-TN-033), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 2003.
 Hancock, P.A. & Hart, S.G., Defeating terrorism: what can human factors/ergonomics offer? Ergonomics in Design, 10(1), pp. 6–16, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1177/106480460201000103
 Fuller, B.A., Managing transportation safety and security risks. Chemical Engineering Progress, pp. 25–29, 2009.
 Young, W. & Leveson, N., Inside risks: an integrated approach to safety and security based on systems theory. Viewpoints: Communications of the ACM, 57(2), pp. 31–35, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1145/2556938
 Leveson, N., Engineering a Safer World: Systems Thinking Applied to Safety. MIT Press: Cambridge, 2011.
 Neiderman, E.C. & Fobes, J.L., A Cognitive Model for X-ray Security Screening: Selection Tests to Identify Applicants Possessing Core Aptitudes, available at http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/20000/20300/20381/PB98125735.pdf (accessed 12 November 2017)
 ICAO., Human Factors in Civil Aviation Security Operations, Doc 9808. International Civil Aviation Organisation: Montreal, 2002.