Towards a Conceptual Framework for Property Level Flood Resilience

Towards a Conceptual Framework for Property Level Flood Resilience

Taiwo J. Adedeji David G. Proverbs Hong Xiao Victor O. Oladokun 

Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment, Birmingham City University, UK

Industrial and Production Engineering, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

30 September 2018
| Citation



Resilience is a multifaceted field of study that has been addressed by different disciplines and has been the subject of extensive research. Despite this vast body of research, there is no agreement on a single definition among researchers. Resilience in the context of flooding has become a major focus of flood risk management policy and reflected in current strategy to mitigate the effects of flooding. Furthermore, in recent times, increased attention has been given to property level resilience as part of an integrated approach to flood risk management. Despite this focus on resilience to flooding, there lacks a single definition and consequently, any effective means to quantify and measure resilience at the level of the individual property. This study aims to review and synthesize the concepts of resilience applied in different fields, in order to propose a resilience definition in the context of property level flood resilience. A framework for conceptualising flood resilience in residential property is developed which indicates the associated components and variables. The framework has the potential to be used by a range of key stakeholders in helping to understand current levels of property level resilience and in deciding what interventions might be best considered to improve resilience.


outcome-based approach, process-based approach, property flood resilience, resilience theory


[1] Fleming, J. & Ledogar, R.J., Resilience, an evolving concept: a review of literature relevant to aboriginal research. PubMed Central, 6(2), pp. 7–23, 2008.

[2] VanBreda, A.D., Resilience Theory: A Literature Review. Pretoria, South Africa: South African Military Health Service, Military Psychological Institute, 2001.

[3] Thomsen, K., Building Resilient Students, Corwin Press, Inc, . Thousand Oaks, CA, 2002.

[4] Unger, M., Handbook for Working with Children and Youth. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2005.

[5] Djordjević, S., Butler, D., Gourbesville, P., Mark, O. & Pasche E., New policies to deal with climate change and other drivers impacting on resilience to flooding in urban areas: the CORFU approach. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(7), pp. 864–873, 2011.

[6] Desjardins, E., Barker, G., Lindo, Z., Dieleman, C. & Dussault A.C., Promoting Resilience. The Quartely Review of Biology, 90(2), pp. 147–165, 2015.

[7] Hosseini, S., Barker, K. & Ramirez-Marquez, J.E., A review of definitions and measures of system resilience. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 145, pp. 47–61, 2016.

[8] American Psychological Association., The Road to Resilience. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2014.

[9] Gauvin-Lepage, J., Lefebvre, H. & Malo, D., Family resilience: defining the concept from a humanist perspective. Interdisciplinary Journal of Family Studies, 19(2), pp. 22–36, 2014.

[10] Masten, A., Resilience in individual development: successful adaptation despite risk and adversity. Educational Resilience in Inner-City American: Challenges and Prospects, eds. M.C. Wang & E.W. Gordon. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 3–26, 1994.

[11] Hardy, S.E., Concato, J. & Gill, T.M., Resilience of community-dwelling older persons. American Geriatrics Society, 52(2), pp. 257–262, 2004.

[12] McCubbin, L., Challenges to the Definition of Resilience, San Francisco, California: American Psychological Association, 2001.

[13] Ahern, M., Kovats, RS., Wilkinson, P., Few, R. & Matthies F.,.Global health impacts of floods: epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiol Reviews, 27(1), pp. 36–46, 2005.

[14] Kumpfer, K., Resiliency and AOD Use Prevention in High Risk Youth. Unpublished manuscript ed. Salt Lake City, Utah, 84112: Available from School of Social Work, University of Utah, 1993.

[15] Norman, E., Introduction: the strengths perspective and resiliency enhancement: a nature partnership. Resiliency Enhancement: Putting Thestrengths Perspective Into Social Work Practice. In: E.Norman, ed. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, pp. 1–16, 2000.

[16] Santos, R.S. & Dreyer, P., Why resilience?” A Review of Literature of Resilience and Implications for Further Educational Research. Running Head: Review of Resilience Research, 2012.

[17] Holling, C.S.,Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience. Engineering Within Ecological Constraints. ed. P. Schulze. National Academy Press, Washington DC, pp. 31–44, 1996.

[18] Holling, C., Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4(1), pp. 1–23, 1973.

[19] Hollnagel, E., Resilience engineering and the built environment: Building Research and Information, Taylor and Francis, Denmark, 2013.

[20] de Bruijn, K.M., Resilience indicators for flood risk management systems of lowland rivers. International Journal of River Basin Management, 2(3), pp. 199–210, 2004.

[21] Folke, C., Resilience: the emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change, 16, pp. 253–267, 2006.

[22] de Bruijn, K,. Buurman, J., Mens, M., Dahm R. & Klijn F., Resilience in practice: five principles to enable societies to cope with extreme weather events. Environmental Science and Policy, 70, pp. 21–30. 2017.

[23] Woods, D.D., Designing for resilience in the face of change and surprise: creating safety under pressure. Plenary Talk, Design for Safety Workshop, NASA Ames Research Center, 10 October, 2000.

[24] Hollnagel, E., Paries, J., Woods, D.D. & Wreathall, J.,Resilience Engineering in Practice: A Guidebook. Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2011.

[25] Woods, D.D. & Hollnagel, E., Resilience Engineering: Concepts and Precepts, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2006.

[26] Gunderson, L.H. & Holling, C.S., Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, Island Press, Washington DC, 2002.

[27] Walker, B., Holling, C.S., Carpenter, S.R. & Kinzig, A.P.,Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), pp. 5–13, 2004.

[28] Adger, W.N.,Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science, 309(5737), pp. 1036–1039, 2005.

[29] Tilman, D., Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence On Natural Ecosystems. ed. G.C. Daily. Washington, DC: Island Press, pp. 93–112, 1997.

[30] Kaplan, H.B., Toward an understanding of resilience: a critical review of definitions and models. Resilience and Development: Positive Life Adaptations, eds. M. Glantz & J. Johnson, Plenum Press, New York, 1999.

[31] Manyena, S.B.,The concept of resilience revisited. Disasters, 30(4), pp. 433−450, 2006.

[32] Olsson, C.A., Bond, L., Burns, J.M., Vella-Brodrick, D.A. & Sawyer S.M., Adolescent resilience: a concept analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 26(1), pp. 1–11, 2003.

[33] Bruneau, M., Chang, S.E., Eguchi, R.T., Lee, G.C., O’Rourke, T.D., Reinhorn, A.M., Shinozuka, M., Tierney, K. & Wallace, W.A., A framework to quantitatively assess and enhance the seismic resilience of communities. Earthquake Spectra, 19(4), pp. 733–752, 2003.

[34] Liao, K.H., A theory on urban resilience to floods—a basis for alternative planning practices. Ecology and Society, 17(4), p. 48, 2012.

[35] McDaniels, T., Chang, S., Cole, D., Mikawoz, J. & Longstaff, H., Fostering resilience to extreme events within infrastructure systems: characterizing decision contexts for mitigation and adaptation. Global Environmental Change, 18(2), pp. 310–318, 2008.

[36] Mayunga, J.S.,Understanding and applying the concept of community disaster resilience: a capital-based approach. Summer Academy for Social Vulnerability and Resilience Building, pp. 1–16, 2007.

[37] Park, J., Seager, T.P., Rao P.S.C., Convertino M. & Linkov I., Integrating risk and resilience approaches to catastrophe management in engineering systems. Risk Analysis, 33(3), pp. 356–367, 2013.

[38] Linkov, I., Bridges, T., Creutzig, F., Decker, J., Fox-Lent, C., Kröger, W., Lambert, J.H., Levermann, A., Montreuil, B., Nathwani, J., Nyer, R., Renn, O., Scharte, B., Scheffler, A., Schreurs M. & Thiel-Clemen, T., Changing the resilience paradigm. Nature Climate Change, 4(6), pp. 407–409, 2014.

[39] Gautam, K.P. & van der Hoek, E.E., Literature Study on Environmental Impact of Floods, Delft Cluster Publication, Netherland, 2003.

[40] Dhonau, M. et al., Homeowners Guide to Flood resilience a Living Document, England: MDA, 2016.

[41] ODPM.,Preparing for Flood: Interim guidance for improving the flood resistance of domestic and small business properties, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, London, UK, 2003.

[42] Lamond, J.E.,The Impact of Flooding on the Value of Residential Property in the UK, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK, 2008.

[43] Hollnagel, E., Memeth, C.P. & Dekker, S.,Resilience Engineering Perspectives. Remaining Sensitive to the Possibility of Failure, 1st ed., Ashgate, Burlington: Vermont, USA, 2008.

[44] Garvin, S.,Flood Resilient Building – Part 2: Building in Flood-Risk Areas and Designing Flood-Resilient Buildings, BRE Press, Watford, 2012.

[45] Kallaos, J., Wyckmans, A. & Mainguy, G., Synthesis Review on Resilient Architecture and Infrastructure Indicators, RAMSES Project, 2014.

[46] Almedom, A.M.,Resilience: Outcome, Process, Emergence, Narrative (OPEN) theory. On the Horizon, 21(1), pp. 15–23, 2013.

[47] Chuang, W.C., Garmestani, A., Eason, T.N., Spanbauer, T.L., Fried-Petersen, H.B., Roberts, C.P., Sundstrom, S.M., Burnett, J.L., Angeler, D.G., Chaffin, B.C., Gunderson, L., Twidwell, D. & Allen, C.R., Enhancing quantitative approaches for assessing community resilience. Environmental Management, 213, pp. 353–362, 2018.

[48] Berkes, F. & Ross, H., Community resilience: toward an integrated approach. Society and Natural Resources, 26, pp. 5–20, 2012.

[49] Friedli, L., Mental Health, Resilience and Inequalities, World Health Organisation, Denmark, 2009.

[50] Lock, S., Rubin, G.J., Murray, V., Rogers, M.B., Amlot, R. & Williams, R., Secondary stressors and extreme events and disasters. PLOS Disasters, 2012.

[51] Eriksen, S.H. & Kelly, P.M., Developing credible vulnerability indicators for climate adaptation policy assessment. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12, pp. 495–524, 2007.

[52] Birkmann, J. Chang-Seng, D., Abeling, T., Huq, N., Wolfertz, J., Karanci, N., İkizer, G., Kuhlicke, C., Pelling, M., Forrester, J., Fordham, M., Deeming, H., Kruse, S. & Jülich, S., Systematization of Different Concepts, Quality Criteria, and Indicators, RAMSES Project, 2012.

[53] Snell, M.L., Eisenberg, D.A., Seager, T.P., Clark, S.S., Oh, Y.H., Thomas, J.E. & McBurnett, L.R., A Multidimensional Review of Resilience: Resources, Processes, and Outcomes, International Risk Governance Center (IRGC), Lausanne, 2016.

[54] Harley, M., Horrocks, L., Hodgson, N. & van Minnen, J., Climate change vulnerability and adaptation indicators. The European Topic Centre on Air and Climate Change (ETC/AC), EEA, Bilthoven, NL, 2008.

[55] Twigger-Ross, C., Kashefi, E., Weldon, S., Brooks, K., Deeming, H., Forrest, S., Fielding, J., Gomersall, A., Harries, T., McCarthy, S., Orr, P., Parker, D. & Tapsell, S. Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder Evaluation: Rapid Evidence Assessment, Defra, London, 2014.

[56] Thurston, N., Finlinson, B., Breakspear, R., Kidd, B., Glerum, J., Lamond, J., Proverbs, D. & Dhonau, M., Availability and Uses of Property Level Flood Risk Data and Information, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, 2010.

[57] Chaochao, L., Cheng, X., Li, N., Du, X., Yu, Q. & Kan, G., A framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13(8), p. 787, 2016.

[58] Lamond, J.E., Proverbs, D.G. & Hammond, F.N., Accessibility of flood risk insurance in the UK: confusion, competition and complacency. Journal of Risk Research, 12, pp. 825–841, 2009.

[59] Huang, P., Tan, H., Liu, A., Feng, S. & Chen, M., 2010. Prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder among adults in flood district. BMC Public Health, 10(1), p. 207.

[60] O’Sullivan, J.J., Bradford, R.A., Bonaiuto, M., De Dominicis, S., Rotko, P., Aaltonen, J., Waylen, K. & Langan, S.J., Enhancing flood resilience through improved risk communications. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, pp. 2271–2282, 2012.

[61] Buckle, P., Marsh, G. & Smale, S., New approaches to assessing vulnerability and resilience. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, pp. 8–14, 2000.

[62] Tapsell, S.M. & Tunstall, S.M., The Health Effects of Floods: The Easter 1998 Floods in England. Floods, ed. D.J. Parker. England: s.n., pp. 172–187, 2000.

[63] Tunstall, S., Tapsell, S., Green, C., Floyd, P. & George, C., The health effects of flooding: social research results from England and Wales. Journal of Water and Health, 4(3), pp. 365–380, 2006.

[64] Pitt, M., Learning Lessons from the 2007 Floods, Cabinet Office, London, 2008.