Managing Water Quality in a Polluted Lake of Southeast Brazil

Managing Water Quality in a Polluted Lake of Southeast Brazil

Marcelo Motta Veiga Dalton Marcondes Silva Lilian Bechara Elabras Veiga 

Environmental Health Department, National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil

Strategic Management Department, Business School, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

Energy Planning Program, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Brazil

Page: 
158-172
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.2495/SDP-V8-N2-158-172
Received: 
N/A
|
Accepted: 
N/A
|
Published: 
22 May 2013
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

Brazil has been suffering from lack of sanitation infrastructure. Great part of domestic sewages does not receive any treatment before final discharge. This study analyzed water quality in Javary Lake, located in Southeastern Brazil. Over decades, this water resource has been progressively polluted due to the raw domestic sewage discharges from local residences. Most of the organic matter introduced in the Lake was already consumed by organisms or has biodegraded. Physico-chemical and microbiological results from 2007 to 2010 corroborated the ‘polluted’ status of the Javary Lake, mainly by organic matter. An aggregate analysis of the overall results indicates that they were similar to values typically observed in stabilization ponds. These results support the main assumption of this study, which implied that the Lake has been biologically operating as a stabilization pond for a long time. There is an ongoing public project to clean up Javary Lake. Since 2011, there is no more domestic raw sewage being directly discharged. However, a significant portion of the sludge has deposited on the bottom of the Lake. In 2011, there was an attempt to remove this accumulated sludge. This attempt of sludge removal introduced already settled down organic matter into the water, generating algae bloom and fish death. Thus, the sludge dredging operation was interrupted. After this faulty dredging, this study did a follow-up analysis indicating that Javary Lake was still polluted. To reverse this situation, it is still necessary to control the recently implemented sewage treatment system and to dredge the Lake bottom to remove most of the accumulated sludge. Till date, Javary Lake still keeps its ‘polluted’ status. It is still pending further studies to determine what would be the best alternative for managing the water quality in the Lake and for disposing the sludge.

Keywords: 

water quality, sewage, stabilization ponds, Brazil, pollution

  References

[1] Rebouças, A.C., Água Doce no Mundo e no Brasil, in Águas Doces no Brasil: capital ecológi- co, uso e conservação, capítulo 1 3a edição, Escrituras Editora, pp. 1–35, 2006.

[2] Braga, B.P.F., Flecha, R., Thomas, P., Cardoso, W., Coelho, A. C., Integrated Water Resources Management in a Federative Country: the case of Brazil, International Journal of Water Resources Development, Routledge, 25(4), 611–628, 2009.

[3] National Water Agency (ANA-Agência Nacional de Águas), Conjuntura dos Recursos Hídricos no Brasil, Brasília, 2009, avaiable at: http://www.ana.gov.br/

[4] National Water Agency (ANA-Agência Nacional de Águas), Conjuntura dos Recursos Hídricos no Brasil, Brasília, 2010, avaiable at: http://www.ana.gov.br/

[5] National Water Agency (ANA-Agência Nacional de Águas), Conjuntura dos Recursos Hídricos no Brasil, Brasília, 2011, avaiable at: http://www.ana.gov.br/

[6] Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística), Brazilian National Survey of Basic Sanitation (PNSB), 2008, avaiable at: http://www.ibge.org.br

[7] Federal Law 11.445 (1997) Available at http://www.planalto.gov.br/

[8] National Environmental Council (CONAMA – Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente), Resolution 357/2005, Avaiable at: http://www.mma.gov.br/conama

[9] Braga, Benedito et al., Introdução à engenharia ambiental, São Paulo: Prentice Hall, 2002.

[10] National Environmental Council (CONAMA – Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente). Resolution 430/2011, avaiable at: http://www.mma.gov.br/conama

[11] Ministério da Saúde (Ministry of Health). Portaria 518/2004, avaiable at: http://www.saude. gov.br/portaria 518.

[12] National Environmental Council (CONAMA – Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente). Resolution 274/2000, available at: http://www.mma.gov.br/conama.

[13] Rio de Janeiro Auditing Authority (TCE), Socioeconomics Study 2005 (in portuguese), Miguel Pereira, available at: www.tce.rj.gov.br

[14] Standard Methods (SM), American Public Health Association (APHA), the American Water Works Association (AWWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21 ed. 2005.

[15] Metcalf & Eddy, Wastewater Engineering. Treatment and Reuse, 4 ed., McGraw-Hill, 2006.

[16] Veiga, M.M., Silva, Dalton M., Water quality analysis at Javary Lake, Rio de Janeiro: Brazil. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment (Online), 145, p. 22094, 2011.

[17] Von Sperling, M., Introduction to water quality and wastewater treatment (in portuguese), 1(3ª) ed. Ed. DESA. 2005.

[18] Von Sperling, M., Stabiization Ponds. (in portuguese) 2nd ed. 2006, p. 196, Ed. UFMG

[19] Vesilind. P.A, Peirce. J.J., Weiner & Ruth F., Environmental Engineering, 3rd ed. 1994.