Ensuring a timely, efficient and cost-effective delivery of facilities is an ongoing major concern for the construction industry. Human errors committed during the design and construction processes and omissions and design changes contribute to delays, leading to rework and cost overruns. A previous study has identified that the costs of design error related rework could add around 16% to the original contract value, and delays have exceeded the original contract duration by over 50% in some construction projects. Minimizing rework helps to improve project performance and timely delivery. Although building information modelling (BIM) is regarded as an effective technology with the potential to help reduce the amount of rework on construction projects, there is no support yet for this view from empirical evidence. Current research on rework management in construction has paid insufficient attention to the potential for improved communication and the self-consistent information flow between the project actors and a BIM database. This study scrutinizes the role of BIM in reducing the frequency of design errors, minimizing the amount of rework and enhancing the construction productivity in construction projects in China. A conceptual design error reduction (DER) model was proposed based on the advice and expertise of a total of 120 BIM and construction experts in China. Seven indicators are identified as crucial factors influencing design error. Clash detection (CD) and design coordination (DC) were found to be the two most important indicators from respondents’ rating. The study advances the understanding of the extent to which BIM can be made use of to reduce the amount of design errors and help improve project performance.
building information modelling (BIM), construction projects, design error, reduction
 Dossick, C.S. & Neft, G., Organizational divisions in BIM enabled commercial construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136(4), pp. 459–467, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000109
 Love, P.E.D., Edwards, D.J., Han, S. & Goh, Y.M., Design error reduction: toward the effective utilization of building information modeling. In Research in Engineering Design, Springer-Verlag: London, 22, pp. 173–187, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00163-011-0105-x
 Azhar, S., Building Information Modeling (BIM): Trends, benefits, risks and challenges for the AEC industry. ASCE Journal of Leadership and Management in Engineering, 11(3), pp. 241–252, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)LM.1943-5630.0000127
 Bernstein, P.G. & Taylor, J.E., Paradigm trajectories of building information modeling in project networks. ASCE Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(2), pp. 69–76, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(2009)25:2(69)
 Ho, S.-P., Tserng, H.-P. & Jan, S-H., Enhancing knowledge sharing management using BIM technology in construction. The Scientific World Journal, p. 10, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/170498
 Al Hattab, M. & Hamzeh, F., Using social network theory and simulation to compare traditional versus BIM-lean practice for design error management. Automation in Construction, 52, pp. 59–69, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2015.02.014
 Sacks, R. & Barak, R., Impact of three-dimensional parametric modeling of buildings on productivity in structural engineering practice. Automation in Construction, 17(4), pp. 439–449, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2007.08.003
 Collins, M.P., Vecchio, F.J., Selby, R.G. & Gupta, P.R., Failure of an offshore platform. Canadian Consulting Engineer, pp. 43–48, 2000.
 Brooks, D.T., Becker, B. & Marlatt, J.R., Computer applications in particular industries: securities. In Computers and the Law, American Bar Association, Section of Science and Technology, 3rd edn., 1981.
 Busby, J.S., Error and distributed cognition in design. Design Studies, 22, pp. 233–254, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-694X(00)00028-4
 Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R. & Liston, K., BIM Handbook a Guide to BIM for Owners, Managers, Architects, Engineers, Contractors, and Fabricators, John Wiley and Sons: Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
 Sacks, R., Radosavljevic, M. & Barak, R., Requirements for BIM based lean production management systems for construction. Automation in Construction, 19, pp. 641–655, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2010.02.010
 Sacks, R., Koskela, L., Dave, B.A. & Owen, R., Interaction of lean and BIM in construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136, pp. 968–980, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000203
 Taylor, J.E. & Bernstein, P.G., Paradigm trajectories of BIM practice in project networks. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25, pp. 69–76, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0742-597X(2009)25:2(69)
 Linderoth, H., Johansson, P. & Granath, K., The role of BIM in preventing design errors. In 30th Annual ARCOM Conference, 1–3 September 2014, Portsmouth, pp. 703–712, 2014.
 Rajendran, P., Seow, T.W. & Goh, K.C., BIM in design stage to assist in time, cost and quality in construction innovation. In 1st FPTP Postgraduate Seminar 2013, 23 December 2013, Fakulti Pengurusan Teknologi dan Perniagaan, UTHM, 2013.
 Baoping, C., Wei, W. & Xin, H., A research on construction project based on BIM. E-Product E-Service and E-Entertainment (ICEEE), 2010 International Conference on, 2010. IEEE, pp. 1–5, 2010.
 Fan, S.L., Skibniewski, M.J. & Hung, T.W., Effects of BIM during construction. Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, 17, pp. 157–166, 2014.
 Eastman, C, Teicholz, P., Sacks, R. & Liston, K., BIM Handbook: a Guide to BIM for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors, 2nd edn., John Wiley and Sons: New York, 2011.
 Wang, Y., Wang, X., Wang, J., Yung, P. & Jun, G., Engagement of facilities management in design stage through BIM: framework and a case study. Advances in Civil Engineering, pp. 1–8, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/189105
 Love, P., Lopez, R., Goh, Y.M. & Davis, P., Systemic modelling of design error causation in social infrastructure projects. Procedia Engineering, 14, pp. 161–168, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.07.019
 Love, P., Edwards, D. J. & Han, S., Bad apple theory of human error and BIM: A systemic model for BIM implementation. A Paper Presented at the 2011 Proceedings of the 28th ISARC, Seoul, Korea. 2011.
 Kaner, I., Sacks, R., Kassian, W. & Quitt, T., Case studies of BIM adoption for precast concrete design by mid-sized structural engineering firms. ITcon, 2008.
 Sacks, R., Evaluation of economic impact of three-dimensional modeling in precast concrete engineering. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 18, pp. 301–312, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0887-3801(2004)18:4(301)
 Bernstein, H.M., Jones, S.A., Russo, M., Laquidara-Carr, D., Taylor, W., Ramos, J., Healy, M., Lorenz, A., Fujishima, H. & Fitch, E., The business value of BIM in North America. Bedford: McGraw-Hill, 2012.
 Azhar, S., Khalfan, M. & Maqsood, T., BIM: now and beyond. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, pp. 12–15, 2012.
 Aranda-Mena, G., Crawford, J., Chevez, A. & Froese, T., BIM demystified: does it make business sense to adopt BIM? International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 2, pp. 419–434, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1108/17538370910971063
 Wu, W. & Issa, R., Integrated process mapping for BIM implemenation in green building project delivery. In 13th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality (CONVR 2013), 2013.
 Bynum, P., Issa, R.R.A. & Olbina, S., BIM in support of sustainable design and construction. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 139, pp. 24–34, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000560
 Rajendran, P., Seow, T. & Goh, K.C., Application of BIM for managing sustainable construction. In International Conference of Technology Management, Business and Entrepreneurship 2012, 18–19 December 2012, Melaka, Malaysia, 2012.
 Benjaoran, V. & Bhokha, S., Enhancing visualization of 4D CAD model compared to conventional methods. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 16, pp. 392–408, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1108/09699980910970860
 Ho, S.-P., Tserng, H.-P., & Jan, S.-H., Enhancing knowledge sharing management using BIM technology in construction. The Scientific World Journal, pp. 1–10, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/170498
 Motawa, I. & Almarshad, A., A knowledge-based BIM system for building maintenance. Automation in Construction, 29, pp. 173–182, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2012.09.008
 Josephson, P.E. & Hammarlund, Y. (1999). The causes and costs of defects in construction: A study of seven building projects. Automation in Construction, 8, pp. 681–687, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-5805(98)00114-9
 Love, P.E., Lopez, R., Kim, J.T. & Kim, M.J., Influence of organizational and project practices on design error costs. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 28, pp. 303–310, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-5805(98)00114-9
 Lopez, R., Love, P.E., Edwards, D.J. & Davis, P.R., Design error classification, causation, and prevention in construction engineering. Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, 24, pp. 399–408, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000116
 Love, P.E., Edwards, D.J. & Irani, Z., Forensic project management: An exploratory examination of the causal behavior of design-induced rework. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 55, pp. 234–247, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2008.919677
 Love, P.E., Mandal, P., Smith, J. & Li, H., Modelling the dynamics of design error induced rework in construction. Construction Management & Economics, 18, 567–574, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1080/014461900407374
 Creswell, J.W., Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, Sage publications, 2013.
 Bradburn, N.M., Sudman, S., Blair, E., Locander, W., Miles, C., Singer, E. & Stocking, C., Improving interview method and questionnaire design: Response effects to threatening Questions in Survey Research, University Microfilms, 1992.
 Aibinu, A. & Jagboro, G., The effects of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry. International Journal of Project Management, 20, pp. 593–599, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00028-5
 Lee, H.W., Oh, H., Kim, Y. & Choi, K., Quantitative analysis of warnings in BIM. Automation in Construction, 51, pp. 23–31, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2014.12.007
 Fraenkel, J.R., Wallen, N.E. & Hyun, H.H., How to design and evaluate research in education, McGraw-Hill New York, 1993.
 Cronbach, L.J., Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, pp. 297–334, 1951. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555
 Kutner, M.H., Nachtsheim, C. & Neter, J., Applied linear regression models, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2004.
 Reason, J., Human error: models and management. Western Journal of Medicine; San Francisco, 172, pp. 393–396, 2000.
 Foord, A. & Gulland, W., Can technology eliminate human error? Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 84, pp. 171–173, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1205/psep.05208