From Resilience to Flexibility: Urban Scenario to Reduce Hazard

From Resilience to Flexibility: Urban Scenario to Reduce Hazard

Roberto De Lotto Veronica Gazzola Cecilia Morelli Di Popolo Elisabetta Maria Venco 

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture – UPLab – University of Pavia.

1 May 2017
| Citation



Population estimates and projections demonstrate that, in the next future, human beings, buildings, economy and society will be exposed to multiple effects (direct and indirect) of phenomena capable of producing temporary and permanent damages on natural environment. The city, as complex system, in case of slow changes, is able to modify its main components and relations (physical and social). During and after unexpected disasters (i.e. floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, terrorist attacks, etc.), its ability to absorb external impacts, to transform and to adapt itself in order to find a new equilibrium status, is particularly stressed and involves the concept of resilience.

To be resilient, town should change unceasingly to adapt to the continuous modification of citizens and environment demands and to find a new balance in different dimensions (flexible city).

The paper aims to give some strategically recommendations that will contribute to reduce disaster risk at urban level. Investigating the future of urbanization and of urban theory, the authors try to rethink the city as a dynamic space that better responds to evolving circumstances and contemporary global challenges: concepts of resilient and flexible cities are involved.


advanced hazard planning, complex system, flexible city, risk reduction, scenario planning, urban resilience

1. Introduction
2. Resilient City
3. Flexible City
4. Resilience and Flexibility in Vulnerable Environment
5. Urban Strategy of Risk Reduction: Relocation
6. Conclusion

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