Letter to the Editor

Letter to the Editor

Royal Truman
Mannheim
Germany

Page: 
68-72
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.2495/DNE-V6-N1-68-72
Received: 
N/A
|
Accepted: 
N/A
|
Published: 
9 March 2011
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

In response to: McIntosh, A.C., Information and entropy – top-down or bottom-up development in living system? International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 4(4), pp. 351–385, 2009.

  References

[1] McIntosh, A.C., Information and entropy – top-down or bottom-up development in living system? International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 4(4), pp. 351–385, 2009. doi:10.2495/DNE-V4-N4-351-385

[2] Ibid, p. 375.

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aminoacyl_tRNA_synthetase.

[4] McIntosh, A.C., Information and entropy – top-down or bottom-up development in living 

system? International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 4(4), p. 353, 2009.

[5] Dawkins, R., The Blind Watchmaker, Penguin Books: London, 1986.

72  Int. J. of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics. Vol. 6, No. 1 (2011)

[6] Once any target sentence is selected, ‘mutations’ approaching the goal are immediately selected with 100% infallibility. No mutation can ever kill the organism; the order of mutations is not relevant; the number of letters in the target is very small, etc. The software is simply based on a deterministic algorithm which will inevitable converge to any chosen target sequence. The relevance to neo-Darwinian theory is lacking.

[7] Schneider, T.D., Evolution of biological information. Nucleic Acids Research, 28(14), pp. 2794–2799, 2000. doi:10.1093/nar/28.14.2794  [8] http://www.lecb.ncifcrf.gov/~toms/delila/ev.html.

[9] Truman, R., The problem of information for the theory of evolution. True Origin Archive, http://www.trueorigin.org/schneider.asp, 2001.

[10] The ‘logic functions’ and assumptions were not, and cannot not, be calibrated against any real biological data. For example, mutations were not allowed to occur at over 99.9% of the genome, only at the binding sites, which explains why the mutation rate of 1/256 over the whole sequence can be used every generation; a series of complexity-increasing stepping stones are made conveniently available and easily reachable with a few mutations. Under the usual settings, higher logic functions, easily reached, instantly lead to a dramatic increase in their proportion in the population.

[11] Axe, D.D., The case against a Darwinian origin of protein folds. BIO-Complexity, 1, pp. 1–12, 2010. doi:10.5048/BIO-C.2010.1

[12] Axe, D.D., Estimating the prevalence of protein sequences adopting functional enzyme folds. Journal of Molecular Biology, 341, pp. 1295–1315, 2004. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.06.058

[13] Guo, H.H., Choe, J. & Loeb, L.A., Protein tolerance to random amino acid change. PNAS, 

101(2), pp. 9205–9210, 2004. doi:10.1073/pnas.0403255101

[14] McIntosh, A.C., Information and entropy – top-down or bottom-up development in living 

system? International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 4(4),  p. 376, 2009.

[15] Sanford, J.C., Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome, Ivan Press, 2005.

[16] McIntosh, A.C., Information and entropy – top-down or bottom-up development in living 

system? International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 4(4),  p. 365, 2009.

[17] Truman, R. & Borger, P., Genome truncation vs mutational opportunity: can new genes arise via gene duplication? – Part 1. Journal of Creation, 22(1), pp. 99–110, 2008.

[18] Truman, R. & Borger, P., Genome truncation vs mutational opportunity: can new genes arise via gene duplication? – Part 2. Journal of Creation, 22(1), pp. 111–119, 2008.