Oscillating Aero-Wing Model in The Quasi-Steady Domain - A Reference for Sustained Animal Flight and Micro Air Vechicles

Oscillating Aero-Wing Model in The Quasi-Steady Domain - A Reference for Sustained Animal Flight and Micro Air Vechicles

P. Freymuth 

Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, USA

Page: 
87-99
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.2495/D&N-V1-N2-87-99
Received: 
N/A
|
Accepted: 
N/A
|
Published: 
30 June 2006
| Citation

OPEN ACCESS

Abstract: 

An oscillating aero-wing operating in pitch and plunge in the quasi-steady domain for lift and thrust generation is presented and analyzed. The model may serve as a reference of comparison for sustained forward propulsion of birds, insects and micro air vehicles. It turns out that the propulsive efficiency of the aero-wing cannot be maximized with respect to the Strouhal number since this number is fixed by the drag-to-lift requirements of an overall system. This is in contrast to the liftless propulsion by a hydro-wing in water. The remaining criteria for aero-propulsion are the minimization of the drag-to-lift ratios of the aero-wing and of the overall flight system. Some other current issues of aero-propulsion are discussed for model support and refinement.

Keywords: 

aerodynamic propulsion, bio-aerodynamics, flow visualization, propulsive efficiency

  References

[1] Spedding, G.R., The aerodynamics of flight. Mechanics of Animal Locomotion, ed. R.Alexander, Springer-Verlag: Berlin, 1992.

[2] Freymuth, P., Oscillating hydro-wing as a propulsor in the quasi-steady domain. Flow Phenomena in Nature, ed. R. Liebe, WIT Press: Southampton, pp. 542–551, 2006.

[3] Weis-Fogh, T. & Jensen, M., Biology and physics of locust flight. 1. Basic principles in insect flight. A critical review. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. B, 239, pp. 415–584, 1956.

[4] Jones, K.D., Lund, T.C. & Platzer, M.F., Experimental and computational investigation of flapping wing propulsion for micro air vehicles. Prog. Astronautics and Aeronautics, 195, pp. 307–339, 2001.

[5] Hall, K.C.&Hall, S.R.,A rational engineering analysis of the efficiency of flapping flight. Prog. Astronautics and Aeronautics, 195, pp. 249–274, 2001.

[6] Anderson, J.M., Streitlien, K., Barrett, D.S. & Triantafyllon, M.S., Oscillating airfoils of high propulsive efficiency. J. Fluid Mech., 360, pp. 41–72, 1998.

[7] Kuethe, A.M. & Chow, C.Y., Foundations of Aerodynamics, 3rd edn,Wiley: NewYork, 1980.

[8] Holst, E. & Küchemann, D., Biologische und aerodynamische Probleme des Tierfluges, Naturwiss., 29, pp. 348–362, 1941.

[9] Taylor, G.K., Nudds, R.L.&Thomas, A.L.R., Flying and swimming animals cruise at a Strouhal number tuned for high power efficiency. Nature, 425, pp. 707–711, 2003.

[10] Lighthill, J., Aerodynamic aspects of animal flight. Swimming and Flying in Nature,Vol. 2, eds. T.Y.T.Wu, C.J. Brokaw & C. Brennen, Plenum Press, pp. 423–491, 1975.

[11] Freymuth, P., Vortex visualizations for two-dimensional models of caudal fin fish propulsion. Flow Phenomena in Nature, ed. R. Liebe, WIT Press: Southampton, pp. 340–356, 2006.

[12] Thomas, A.L.R., Taylor, G.K., Srygley, R.B. & Nudds, R.L., Dragonfly flight: free-flight and tethered flow visualizations reveal a diverse array of unsteady lift-generating mechanisms, controlled primarily via angle of attack. J. Exp. Biology, 207, pp. 4299–4323, 2004.

[13] Srygley, R.B. & Thomas, A.L.R., Unconventional lift-generating mechanisms in free-flying butterflies. Nature, 420, pp. 660–664, 2002.

[14] Saharon, D. & Luttges, M.W., Three-dimensional flow produced by a pitching-plunging model dragonfly wing, Paper AIAA 87-0121, 1987.

[15] Freymuth, P., Finaish, F. & Bank,W., Visualization of wing tip vortices in unsteady and steady wind, Paper AIAA-86-1096, 1986. Also AIAA J. Aircraft, 23, pp. 730–733, 1986.

[16] Freymuth, P. Finaish, F. & Bank, W., Further visualization of combined wing tip and starting vortex systems. AIAA Journal, 25, pp. 1153–1159, 1987.

[17] Freymuth, P., Finaish, F. & Bank,W., The wing tip vortex system in a starting flow. Zeitschrift für Flugwiss. Weltraumforsch., 10, pp. 116–118, 1986.

[18] Freymuth, P.,Visualizing the combined system of wing tip and starting vortices. TSI Flow Lines, Premier Issue, May 1986.

[19] Freymuth, P., Finaish, F. & Bank, W., Parametric exploration of unsteady wing tip vortices. Flow Visualization IV, Hemisphere Publishing Corp.:Washington, DC, pp. 419–424, 1987.

[20] Freymuth, P., Vortex topology of rectangular wings in pictures, sketches, and conjectures. Journal of Flow Visualization and Image Processing, 1, pp. 1–13, 1993. Also TSI Flow Lines 6(1), pp. 9–13, 1991.

[21] Freymuth, P., Visualizing the connectivity of vortex systems for pitching wings, AIAA Paper 88-3549-CP, 1988. Also Journal of Fluids Engineering (ASME), 111, pp. 217–220, 1988.

[22] Freymuth, P., Vortex visualization as a reference for computer simulation. Vortex Methods and Vortex Motion, eds. K.E. Gustafson, & J.S. Sethian, SIAM: Philadelphia, PA, pp. 65–94, 1991.

[23] Freymuth, P., Flow visualization in fluid mechanics. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 64, pp. 1–18, 1993.