Modeling, realization and test on field of a fuel cell ‐ Na/NiCl2 battery hybrid system as a base transceiver station power supply
The telecommunications sector has grown exponentially in recent years due to mobile communications and internet diffusion. This trend seems to continue in near future driven by both further increase of mobile communications in less developed areas and likely diffusion of IoT (Internet of Things). Radio base stations (RBS) need a power grid that is stable and reliable. The approach of the project presented in this work is to replace the UPS and stabilizers with a hybrid fuel cell (SOFC) - Na/NiCl2 batteries capable of high quality energy performances. This kind of system can ensure power delivering where the electric grid is absent or weak or provide a wide range of power and energy services if installed where the grid is present. In particular, the system developed is able to supply both on-grid and off-grid RBS (1-10 kW) and medium sized data centers (+50 kW), integrated with RES (e.g. solar PV, wind), minimizing their unpredictability, and is consistent with future smart grids/smart cities infrastructures. The hybrid approach guarantees energy and power supply while the fuel cell works at a fixed power set point, so that the batteries follow rapid load variations. SOFC systems have too slow dynamics to follow the load power variations without compromising its own lifetime.
The integration of this hybrid system in the RBS has been studied and designed by using customized power electronics converters. A modelling tool has been developed in MATLAB environment to help in evaluating size, performance, and operative algorithms of this type of hybridization. The real system has been assembled and tested at the CNR ITAE Laboratories. Then it has been moved to a real telecommunication site, in Palermo, to work directly coupled to an operating load.
SOFC, hybrid system, smart energy
Thanks to ONSITE project (Operation of a Novel SOFC-hybrid battery for Integrated Telecommunication Energy systems, funded by FCH - JU, Grant No. 325325)
Andrusenko J., Burbank J. L., Ouyang F. (2015). Future trends in commercial wireless communications and why they matter to the military. Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, Vol. 33, No. 1.
Brunaccini G., Sergi F., Aloisio D., Ferraro M., Blesznowski M., Kupecki J., Motylinski K., Antonucci V. (2017). Modeling of a SOFC-HT battery hybrid system for optimal design of off-grid base transceiver station. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 42, No. 46, pp. 27962-27978. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.09.062
EY. (2018). Digital transformation for 2020 and beyond, a global telecommunications study. Available: http://www.ey.com.
Ibrahim M. D., Khair A., Ansari S. (2015). A review of hybrid renewable energy systems for electric power generation. Ibrahim et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, Vol. 5, No. 8, pp. 42-48.
ITU. (2015). ICT Facts & Figures 2015. Available: http://www.itu.int
Krishna K. S., Kumar K. S. (2015). A review on hybrid renewable energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 52, pp. 907-916. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.187
Oertzen G. A. (2017). On the technical future of telecommunications industry. Available: http://www.oliverwyman.com.
Olatomiwa L., Mekhilef S. (2014). Optimal sizing of hybrid energy system for a remote telecom tower: A case study in Nigeria. Presented at IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion (CENCON) Sep. http://doi.org/10.1109/CENCON.2014.6967509
Sawle Y., Gupta S. C., Bohre A. K. (2018). Review of hybrid renewable energy systems with comparative analysis of off-grid hybrid system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 81, No. 2, pp. 2217-2235. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.06.033
Spagnuolo A., Petraglia A., Vetromile C., Formosi R., Lubritto C. (2015). Monitoring and optimization of energy consumption of base transceiver stations. Energy, Vol. 81, pp. 286-293. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.12.040
Upadhyay S., Sharma M. P. (2014). A review on configurations, control and sizing methodologies of hybrid energy systems. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 38, pp. 47-63. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.057