Design and fabrication of a forced convection solar dryer integrated with heat storage materials

Design and fabrication of a forced convection solar dryer integrated with heat storage materials

Clement Adekunle Komolafe  Mufutau Adekojo Waheed 

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Landmark University, P.M.B 1001, Omu Aran, Nigeria

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, P.M.B 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Corresponding Author Email: 
komolafe.adekunle@lmu.edu.ng
Page: 
23-39
|
DOI: 
https://doi.org/10.3166/ACSM.42.23-39
Received: 
|
Accepted: 
|
Published: 
31 March 2018
| Citation

ACCESS

Abstract: 

The purpose of this study was to designed and fabricated a 10 kg capacity forced convection solar dryer integrated with thermal energy storage materials, TSMA and TSMB, using locally sourced and low-cost materials for drying agricultural products. The dryer consists mainly of a well-insulated solar collector, drying chamber and photovoltaic components. The maximum collector and drying chamber temperatures obtained from three experiments at no-load conditions with two different thermal and without thermal energy storage materials were 86.2, 91.3 and 80.3 oC; and 67.8, 70.8 and 54 oC respectively, at the corresponding maximum solar radiations of 716.5, 810 and 724.7 W/m2. The recorded minimum drying chamber relative humidity of the solar dryer with TSMA, TSMB and without was 27, 24 and 23% respectively, and the corresponding ambient humidity was 70.8, 56.8 and 56.2%. A full load drying process using cocoa beans with TSMA took two full days, 10 hrs (58 hrs) to reduce initial moisture content of cocoa beans from 0.6 to 0.034 g water/g w.b. The maximum drying temperature and thermal efficiency obtained were 54 oC and 48.8% respectively. The dryer was thus viable for drying products within short time with little temperature control mechanism

Keywords: 

drying, Solar dryer, Forced convection, Cocoa beans, Heat storage materials

1. Introduction
2. Materials and methods
3. Results and discussions
4. Conclusions
  References

Akinola A. O., Fapetu O. P. (2006). Exergetic analysis of a mixed-mode solar dryer. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 205-210. https://doi.org/jeasci.2006.205.210

Akoy E., Mohamed I., Elfadil A. (2012). Mathematical modelling of solar drying of mango slices. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing 2012, Germany.

Akpinar E. K., Bicer Y., Cetinkaya F. (2006). Modelling of thin layer drying of parsley leaves in a convective dryer and under open sun. Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 75, pp. 308-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2005.04.018

Al-Juamily K. E. J., Khalifa A. J. N., Yassen T. A. (2007). Testing of performance of fruit and a vegetable solar drying system in Iraq. Desalination, Vol. 209, pp. 163-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2007.04.026

Alta D., Bilgili E., Ertekin C., Yaldiz O. (2010). Experimental investigation of three different solar air heaters: Energy and exergy analyses. Applied Energy, Vol. 87, pp. 2953-2973. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.04.016

Amer B. M. A., Hossain M. A., Gottschalk K. (2010). Design and performance evaluation of a new hybrid solar dryer for banana. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 51, pp. 813-820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2009.11.016

Ayensu A., Asiedu-Bondzie V. (1986). Solar drying with convective self-flow and energy storage. Solar and Wind Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 273-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/0741-983X(86)90006-8

Ayyappan S., Mayilsamy K. (2010). Solar tunnel dryer with thermal storage for drying of copra (coconut). Proceedings of 27th National and 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power. IIT Madras, Chennai, India.

Bal L. M., Satya S., Naik S. N. (2011). Solar dryer with thermal energy storage systems for drying agricultural food products: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 2010, Vol. 14, No. 8, pp. 2298-2314. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.04.014

Bal L. M., Satya S., Naik S. N., Meda V. (2011). Review of solar dryer with latent heat storage systems for agricultural products. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 876-880. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.006

Bala B. K., Morshed M. A., Rahman M. F. (2009). Solar drying of mushroom using solar tunnel dryer. International Food Processing Conference.

Bolaji B. O. (2011). Exergetic analysis of solar energy drying systems. Natural Resources, Vol. 2, pp. 92-97. https://doi.org/10.4236/nr.2011.22012

Bonaparte A., Alikhani Z., Madramootoo C. A., Raghavan V. (1998). Some quality characteristics of solar dried cocoa beans in St.Lucia. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 76, pp. 553-558. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199804)76:4<553::AID-JSFA986>3.0.CO;2-V

Çakmak G., Yıldız C. (2011). The drying kinetics of seeded grape in solar dryer with PCM-based solar integrated collector. Food and Bioproducts Processing, Vol. 89, No. 2, pp. 103–108.

Demir K., Sacilik K. (2010). Solar drying of Ayas tomatoes using a natural convection solar tunnel dryer. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 7-12.

Dina F. S., Ambarita H., Napitupulu F. H., Kawai H. (2015). Study of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, Vol. 5, pp. 32 – 40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csite.2014.11.003

Fagunwa A. O., Koya O. A., Faborode M. O. (2009). Development of an intermittent solar dryer for cocoa beans. Agricultural Engineering International, the CIGR Ejournal, Manuscript no. 1292.vol.xi.

Fudholi A., Sopian K., Yazdi M. H., Ruslan M. H., Gabbasa M., Kazeem H. A. (2014). Performance analysis of solar drying system for red chili. Solar Energy, Vol. 99, pp. 47-54 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2013.10.019

Gatea A. A. (2010). Design, construction and performance evaluation of solar maize dryer. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 39-46.

Gbaha P., Yobouet A. H., Kouassi S. J., Kamenan K. B., Toure S. (2007). Experimental investigation of a solar dryer with natural convective heat flow. Renewable Energy, Vol. 32, No. 11, pp. 1817-1829. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2006.10.011

Gupta M. K., Kaushik S. C. (2008). Exergetic performance evaluation and parametric studies of solar air heater. Energy, Vol. 33, pp. 1691-1702. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2008.05.010

Hii C. L., Law C. L., Cloke M. (2008). Modelling of thin layer drying kinetics of cocoa beans during artificial and natural drying. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 1-10. 

Jinap S., Thien J., Yap T. N. (1994). Effect of drying on acidity and volatile fatty acids content of cocoa beans. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 65, pp. 67–75. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740650111

Karlekar B. V., Desmond R. M. (1982). Engineering heat transfer. West Publishing Company 1982, U.S.A.

Komolafe C. A., Adejumo A. O. D., Awogbemi O., Adeyeye A. D. (2014). Development of a cocoa beans batch dryer. American Journal of Engineering Research, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 171-176.

Kumar C., Karim M. A., Joardder M. U. H. (2014). Intermittent drying of food products: A critical review. Journal of Food Engineering, Vol. 121, pp. 48-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2013.08.014

Lane G. A. (183). Solar heat storage-latent heat materials. Vol.1 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.

Liley P. E. (1997). Thermodynamic properties of substances. In Avallone  EA, Baumeister T, editors. Mark’s Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, McGraw Hill Books Co. New York.

McDonald C. R., Lass R. A., Lopez A. S. F. (1981). Cocoa drying. A review. Cocoa Growers Bulletin, No. 31, pp. 5-41.

Michael W. B. (1991). Improving the performance of indirect natural convection solar dryers. Final Report International Development Research Centre Project. No3-A-2069.

Montero I., Blanco J., Miranda T., Rojas S., Celma A. R. (2010). Design, construction and performance testing of a solar dryer for Agro industrial by-products. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 51, pp. 1510-1521. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.02.009

Pardhi C. B., Bhagoria J. L. (2013). Development and performance evaluation of mixed-mode solar dryer with forced convection. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 23. https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6832-4-23

Sevik S. (2014). Design, experimental investigation and analysis of a solar drying system. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 68, pp. 227-234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.01.013

Shanmugan V., Natarajan E. (2006). Experimental investigation of forced convection and desiccant integrated solar dryer. Renewable Energy, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 1239-1251. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2005.05.019

Sharma A., Tyagi V. C., Chen C. R., Buddhi D. (2009). Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and a.pplications. Renewable Sustainable Energy Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 318-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2007.10.005

Sodha M. S., Bansal N. K., Kumar A., Bansal P. K., Malik M. A. (1987). Solar crop drying. Vol I and II. CRP press, Boca Raton 1987, Florida, USA.

Sreekumar A. (2007). Development of solar air heaters and thermal energy storage system for drying applications in food processing industries. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis submitted to Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22, India, 2007, pp. 65-71.

Tarigan E., Tekasakul P. (2005). A mixed mode natural convection solar dryer with biomass burner and heat storage back-up heater. ANZSES, pp. 1-9.